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On the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers


Kapralos, Vasileios; Böcker, Jannis; Vach, Kirstin; Altenburger, Markus; Proksch, Susanne; Karygianni, Lamprini (2022). On the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers. Swiss Dental Journal, 132(9):586-597.

Abstract

Periapical tissue may be exposed to root canal filling materials in consequence of root canal therapy. There is scant scientific data about the biocompatibility of root canal filling materials of various chemistry on the periapical area. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different root canal sealers and their eluates on human alveolar osteoblasts in terms of cell proliferation, adhesion, morphology and gene expression in vitro. Five endodontic sealers (AH Plus®, Apexit®, Tubli-Seal®, Real Seal SE®, EndoRez®) and one gutta-percha obturation material (BeeFill®) were tested. Human alveolar osteoblasts derived from 3 different donors following incubation with sealer eluates after 24 h and 72 h were investigated by means of qPCR (gene expression). Morphological reactions of the alveolar osteoblasts were measured by culturing the cells for 3 d, and 7 d and 14 d, respectively, followed by scanning electron microscopy (morphology, adhesion) and fluorescence imaging of the actin cytoskeleton (morphology, proliferation). A repeated measures analysis was performed and p-values were adjusted by Tukey. While all sealers influenced the cell morphology and the expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Casp3), proliferation (histone H3), and inflammation (interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3), mainly AH Plus® and Apexit® yielded a regular actin cytoskeleton and beneficial gene expression patterns. Regarding cell adhesion, only AH Plus® supported proper anchorage for alveolar osteoblasts. Our results provide evidence for the biocompatibility of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers, i.e. AH Plus®, while other sealers proved cytotoxic for alveolar osteoblasts. Further studies are needed for understanding the bone cell reactions after endodontic treatment and the clinical decision-making regarding the sealer of choice for root canal fillings.

Abstract

Periapical tissue may be exposed to root canal filling materials in consequence of root canal therapy. There is scant scientific data about the biocompatibility of root canal filling materials of various chemistry on the periapical area. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different root canal sealers and their eluates on human alveolar osteoblasts in terms of cell proliferation, adhesion, morphology and gene expression in vitro. Five endodontic sealers (AH Plus®, Apexit®, Tubli-Seal®, Real Seal SE®, EndoRez®) and one gutta-percha obturation material (BeeFill®) were tested. Human alveolar osteoblasts derived from 3 different donors following incubation with sealer eluates after 24 h and 72 h were investigated by means of qPCR (gene expression). Morphological reactions of the alveolar osteoblasts were measured by culturing the cells for 3 d, and 7 d and 14 d, respectively, followed by scanning electron microscopy (morphology, adhesion) and fluorescence imaging of the actin cytoskeleton (morphology, proliferation). A repeated measures analysis was performed and p-values were adjusted by Tukey. While all sealers influenced the cell morphology and the expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Casp3), proliferation (histone H3), and inflammation (interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3), mainly AH Plus® and Apexit® yielded a regular actin cytoskeleton and beneficial gene expression patterns. Regarding cell adhesion, only AH Plus® supported proper anchorage for alveolar osteoblasts. Our results provide evidence for the biocompatibility of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers, i.e. AH Plus®, while other sealers proved cytotoxic for alveolar osteoblasts. Further studies are needed for understanding the bone cell reactions after endodontic treatment and the clinical decision-making regarding the sealer of choice for root canal fillings.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Dentistry (miscellaneous)
Language:English
Date:5 September 2022
Deposited On:01 Dec 2022 10:17
Last Modified:25 Mar 2024 04:40
Publisher:Schweizerische Zahnärzte-Gesellschaft SSO
ISSN:2296-6498
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
PubMed ID:35536041
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Publisher License