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An Equine Model for Vaccination against a Hepacivirus: Insights into Host Responses to E2 Recombinant Protein Vaccination and Subsequent Equine Hepacivirus Inoculation


Badenhorst, Marcha; Saalmüller, Armin; Daly, Janet M; Ertl, Reinhard; Stadler, Maria; Puff, Christina; de le Roi, Madeleine; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Engelmann, Michael; Brandner, Sabine; Junge, Hannah K; Pratscher, Barbara; Volz, Asisa; Saunier, Bertrand; Krey, Thomas; Wittmann, Johannes; Heelemann, Steffen; Delarocque, Julien; Wagner, Bettina; Todt, Daniel; Steinmann, Eike; Cavalleri, Jessika-M V (2022). An Equine Model for Vaccination against a Hepacivirus: Insights into Host Responses to E2 Recombinant Protein Vaccination and Subsequent Equine Hepacivirus Inoculation. Viruses, 14(7):1401.

Abstract

Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest known genetic homologue of hepatitis C virus. An effective prophylactic vaccine is currently not available for either of these hepaciviruses. The equine as potential surrogate model for hepacivirus vaccine studies was investigated, while equine host responses following vaccination with EqHV E2 recombinant protein and subsequent EqHV inoculation were elucidated. Four ponies received prime and booster vaccinations (recombinant protein, adjuvant) four weeks apart (day −55 and −27). Two control ponies received adjuvant only. Ponies were inoculated with EqHV RNA-positive plasma on day 0. Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected over 26 weeks (day −70 to +112). Serum analyses included detection of EqHV RNA, isotypes of E2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), nonstructural protein 3-specific IgG, haematology, serum biochemistry, and metabolomics. Liver tissue analyses included EqHV RNA detection, RNA sequencing, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Al-though vaccination did not result in complete protective immunity against experimental EqHV inoculation, the majority of vaccinated ponies cleared the serum EqHV RNA earlier than the control ponies. The majority of vaccinated ponies appeared to recover from the EqHV-associated liver insult earlier than the control ponies. The equine model shows promise as a surrogate model for future hepacivirus vaccine research.

Abstract

Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest known genetic homologue of hepatitis C virus. An effective prophylactic vaccine is currently not available for either of these hepaciviruses. The equine as potential surrogate model for hepacivirus vaccine studies was investigated, while equine host responses following vaccination with EqHV E2 recombinant protein and subsequent EqHV inoculation were elucidated. Four ponies received prime and booster vaccinations (recombinant protein, adjuvant) four weeks apart (day −55 and −27). Two control ponies received adjuvant only. Ponies were inoculated with EqHV RNA-positive plasma on day 0. Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected over 26 weeks (day −70 to +112). Serum analyses included detection of EqHV RNA, isotypes of E2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), nonstructural protein 3-specific IgG, haematology, serum biochemistry, and metabolomics. Liver tissue analyses included EqHV RNA detection, RNA sequencing, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Al-though vaccination did not result in complete protective immunity against experimental EqHV inoculation, the majority of vaccinated ponies cleared the serum EqHV RNA earlier than the control ponies. The majority of vaccinated ponies appeared to recover from the EqHV-associated liver insult earlier than the control ponies. The equine model shows promise as a surrogate model for future hepacivirus vaccine research.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Life Sciences > Virology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Virology, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:27 June 2022
Deposited On:07 Dec 2022 13:03
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 01:42
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071401
PubMed ID:35891381
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)