Information about the potential oral health effects of vaping from electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is still sparse and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and cytotoxicity of e-cig liquid aerosols versus traditional cigarette (t-cig) smoke on human epithelial oral cells. T-cig smoke and e-cig aerosols were generated by a newly developed automated smoking instrument in order to simulate realistic user puffing behaviors. Air-liquid interface transwell cell cultures were exposed to standardized puff topography (puff duration: 2 s, puff volume: 35 mL, puff frequency: 1 puff every 60 s) of reference t-cigs or commercially available e-cigs at different air dilutions. Cell viability, morphology, and death rate were evaluated with MTT and TUNEL assays. The inflammatory cytokine gene expression of inflammatory genes was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. E-cigs and t-cigs indicated similar adverse effects by enhancing cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose-dependent manner. E-cig aerosol and t-cig smoke treatment expressed upregulation of inflammatory cytokines up to 3.0-fold (p < 0.05). These results indicate that e-cig smoking may contribute to oral tissue-cell damage and tissue inflammation. Our approach allows the production of e-cig aerosol and t-cig smoke in order to identify harmful effects in oral tissues in vitro.