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Radiographic results of osteotome-driven maxillary sinus floor elevation without grafting materials after 17.5 years radiographic evaluation of minimally-invasive sinus grafting


Hicklin, Stefan Paul; Bindl, Andreas; Schmidlin, Patrick R (2022). Radiographic results of osteotome-driven maxillary sinus floor elevation without grafting materials after 17.5 years radiographic evaluation of minimally-invasive sinus grafting. Journal of Dentistry, 126:104318.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
There is growing evidence that minimally invasive sinus augmentation works without the use of filler materials. This study assessed the bone integration and sinus projection of single-unit implants in the maxilla, which were placed approximately 18 years ago using a modified filler-free osteotome technique.
METHODS
Sixteen of the 24 treated patients of a former publication (treatment was performed between 2001 and 2004) were reassessed after a mean implant loading period of 17.5 years. The treated posterior areas were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and as a primary outcome parameter, sinus projection was determined in sectional views at the mesial, distal, buccal, and oral sites. Additionally, the percentage of alveolar bone contact was determined with respect to the implant length. Conventional radiographs were used to determine marginal bone levels. Additionally, plaque, bleeding on probing, and probing pocket depth were measured. The reconstructions were checked for chipping and other technical complications such as loss of retention, screw loosening, and screw fracture.

RESULTS

The mean age of the included patients was 72.8 ± 8.5 years. Two implants were lost. Therefore, fourteen implants were available for CBCT evaluation. The highest sinus projection of 2.1 ± 1.7 mm was observed in the distal aspect, while it was 1.1 ± 1.5, 0.9 ± 1.2, and 0.9 ± 1.1 mm at the mesial, buccal, and oral sites, respectively. The maximal sinus projection in one case was 6.7 mm. The percentage calculation of osseous implant integration (in mm ± standard deviations) with respect to the selected implant length at the mesial, distal, buccal, and oral sites showed values ranging from, 87.9 ± 16.0, 78.4 ± 20.3, 91.0 ± 12.5, and 90.5 ± 11.1%, respectively. Five implants displayed probing pocket depths of more than 4 mm with bleeding; all implants had less than 1 mm of bone loss in the observation period, that is, implants had mucositis. Six of 14 crowns showed small chippings within the ceramic veneering. One case of screw loosening was reported in medical history.
DISCUSSION
This study showed that implant placement in non-augmented sinuses resulted in good clinical results. The sinus projection, even if persistent and present, leads to no functional impairments. Given adequate maintenance, marginal bone levels remain constant and peri‑implant health can be observed. Moreover, these results represent only a small cohort; and therefore, should be interpreted with caution. However, in view of the existing literature, these highly promising results are in line with other findings.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
To the best of our knowledge, this dataset is the report with the longest follow-up. Overall, implants placed in the sinus without fillers represent a valuable alternative for tooth replacement in a minimally interventional manner.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
There is growing evidence that minimally invasive sinus augmentation works without the use of filler materials. This study assessed the bone integration and sinus projection of single-unit implants in the maxilla, which were placed approximately 18 years ago using a modified filler-free osteotome technique.
METHODS
Sixteen of the 24 treated patients of a former publication (treatment was performed between 2001 and 2004) were reassessed after a mean implant loading period of 17.5 years. The treated posterior areas were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and as a primary outcome parameter, sinus projection was determined in sectional views at the mesial, distal, buccal, and oral sites. Additionally, the percentage of alveolar bone contact was determined with respect to the implant length. Conventional radiographs were used to determine marginal bone levels. Additionally, plaque, bleeding on probing, and probing pocket depth were measured. The reconstructions were checked for chipping and other technical complications such as loss of retention, screw loosening, and screw fracture.

RESULTS

The mean age of the included patients was 72.8 ± 8.5 years. Two implants were lost. Therefore, fourteen implants were available for CBCT evaluation. The highest sinus projection of 2.1 ± 1.7 mm was observed in the distal aspect, while it was 1.1 ± 1.5, 0.9 ± 1.2, and 0.9 ± 1.1 mm at the mesial, buccal, and oral sites, respectively. The maximal sinus projection in one case was 6.7 mm. The percentage calculation of osseous implant integration (in mm ± standard deviations) with respect to the selected implant length at the mesial, distal, buccal, and oral sites showed values ranging from, 87.9 ± 16.0, 78.4 ± 20.3, 91.0 ± 12.5, and 90.5 ± 11.1%, respectively. Five implants displayed probing pocket depths of more than 4 mm with bleeding; all implants had less than 1 mm of bone loss in the observation period, that is, implants had mucositis. Six of 14 crowns showed small chippings within the ceramic veneering. One case of screw loosening was reported in medical history.
DISCUSSION
This study showed that implant placement in non-augmented sinuses resulted in good clinical results. The sinus projection, even if persistent and present, leads to no functional impairments. Given adequate maintenance, marginal bone levels remain constant and peri‑implant health can be observed. Moreover, these results represent only a small cohort; and therefore, should be interpreted with caution. However, in view of the existing literature, these highly promising results are in line with other findings.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
To the best of our knowledge, this dataset is the report with the longest follow-up. Overall, implants placed in the sinus without fillers represent a valuable alternative for tooth replacement in a minimally interventional manner.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Dentistry
Language:English
Date:1 November 2022
Deposited On:14 Dec 2022 14:47
Last Modified:28 Apr 2024 01:40
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0300-5712
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2022.104318
PubMed ID:36202279
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)