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Amyloid and Tau Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Tauopathies


Maschio, Cinzia; Ni, Ruiqing (2022). Amyloid and Tau Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Tauopathies. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 14:838034.

Abstract

The detection and staging of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using non-invasive imaging biomarkers is of substantial clinical importance. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides readouts to uncover molecular alterations in the brains of AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity. A variety of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau PET tracers are already available for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but there is still a lack of imaging biomarkers with high affinity and selectivity for tau inclusions in primary tauopathies, such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and Pick's disease (PiD). This review aims to provide an overview of the existing Aβ and tau PET imaging biomarkers and their binding properties from in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment. Imaging biomarkers for pathologic proteins are vital for clinical diagnosis, disease staging and monitoring of the potential therapeutic approaches of AD. Off-target binding of radiolabeled tracers to white matter or other neural structures is one confounding factor when interpreting images. To improve binding properties such as binding affinity and to eliminate off-target binding, second generation of tau PET tracers have been developed. To conclude, we further provide an outlook for imaging tauopathies and other pathological features of AD and primary tauopathies.

Abstract

The detection and staging of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using non-invasive imaging biomarkers is of substantial clinical importance. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides readouts to uncover molecular alterations in the brains of AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity. A variety of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau PET tracers are already available for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but there is still a lack of imaging biomarkers with high affinity and selectivity for tau inclusions in primary tauopathies, such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and Pick's disease (PiD). This review aims to provide an overview of the existing Aβ and tau PET imaging biomarkers and their binding properties from in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment. Imaging biomarkers for pathologic proteins are vital for clinical diagnosis, disease staging and monitoring of the potential therapeutic approaches of AD. Off-target binding of radiolabeled tracers to white matter or other neural structures is one confounding factor when interpreting images. To improve binding properties such as binding affinity and to eliminate off-target binding, second generation of tau PET tracers have been developed. To conclude, we further provide an outlook for imaging tauopathies and other pathological features of AD and primary tauopathies.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Aging
Life Sciences > Cognitive Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:22 April 2022
Deposited On:28 Dec 2022 13:46
Last Modified:28 Apr 2024 01:41
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1663-4365
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.838034
PubMed ID:35527737
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)