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Bacterial travellers’ diarrhoea: A narrative review of literature published over the past 10 years


Lόpez-Vélez, Rogelio; Lebens, Michael; Bundy, Leah; Barriga, Juan; Steffen, Robert (2022). Bacterial travellers’ diarrhoea: A narrative review of literature published over the past 10 years. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 47:102293.

Abstract

Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most frequent illness experienced by international travellers to lower-income countries with bacterial agents considered to account for 80-90% of cases. In this review, we summarise evidence published on bacterial TD over the past 10 years, focusing on the epidemiology and aetiology of TD. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) continue to be the most commonly implicated bacteria in TD, although Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) now appear to be predominant where Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was previously considered most prevalent globally. Where fluroquinolone resistance had primarily been documented for Campylobacter in Southeast Asia, widespread resistance has been observed in most regions of the world for multiple enteropathogens, including Shigella, Salmonella, ETEC and EAEC. Implementation of novel molecular methods for pathogen detection has led to identification of bacterial pathogens, including Clostridium difficile (with and without the use of prior antibiotics), Arcobacter species and Bacteroides fragilis, as aetiological agents in TD. The widespread resistance to first-line antibiotics in multiple bacterial enteropathogens warrants continued surveillance and re-evaluation of current treatment practices. Further investigations are required to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of bacterial enteropathogens that have been more recently implicated in TD.

Abstract

Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most frequent illness experienced by international travellers to lower-income countries with bacterial agents considered to account for 80-90% of cases. In this review, we summarise evidence published on bacterial TD over the past 10 years, focusing on the epidemiology and aetiology of TD. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) continue to be the most commonly implicated bacteria in TD, although Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) now appear to be predominant where Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was previously considered most prevalent globally. Where fluroquinolone resistance had primarily been documented for Campylobacter in Southeast Asia, widespread resistance has been observed in most regions of the world for multiple enteropathogens, including Shigella, Salmonella, ETEC and EAEC. Implementation of novel molecular methods for pathogen detection has led to identification of bacterial pathogens, including Clostridium difficile (with and without the use of prior antibiotics), Arcobacter species and Bacteroides fragilis, as aetiological agents in TD. The widespread resistance to first-line antibiotics in multiple bacterial enteropathogens warrants continued surveillance and re-evaluation of current treatment practices. Further investigations are required to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of bacterial enteropathogens that have been more recently implicated in TD.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:2022
Deposited On:04 Jan 2023 11:24
Last Modified:28 Jun 2024 01:37
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1477-8939
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102293
PubMed ID:35247581
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)