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Fracture Risk and Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers


Holloway-Kew, Kara L; Betson, Amelia G; Anderson, Kara B; Sepetavc, Filip; Gaston, James; Kotowicz, Mark A; Liao, Wan-Hui; Henneberg, Maciej; Pasco, Julie A (2022). Fracture Risk and Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Calcified tissue international, 111(4):396-408.

Abstract

Medications used to treat hypertension may affect fracture risk. This study investigated fracture risk for users of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). Participants (899 men, median age 70.3 yr (59.9-79.1), range 50.0-96.6 yr; 574 women, median age 65.5 yr (58.1-75.4), range 50.1-94.6 yr) were from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Medication use was self-reported and incident fractures were ascertained using radiological reports. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the femoral neck. Participants were divided into four groups: (1) non-users without hypertension, (2) non-users with hypertension, (3) ACEI users and (4) ARB users. Dosage was calculated using the defined daily dose (DDD) criteria. Participants were followed from date of visit to first fracture, death or 31 December 2016, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for analyses. At least one incident fracture was sustained by 156 men and 135 women over a median(IQR) of 11.5(6.2-13.2) and 10.9(6.3-11.6) years of follow-up, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, compared to non-users without hypertension, men in all three other groups had a higher risk of fracture (Hazard Ratio (HR, 95%CI) 1.54, 1.00-2.37; 1.90, 1.18-3.05; 2.15, 1.26-3.66), for non-users with hypertension, ACEI and ARB users, respectively). Following adjustment for age, prior fracture and BMD, these associations became non-significant. A dose effect for ARB use was observed; men using lower doses had a higher risk of fracture than non-users without hypertension, in both unadjusted (2.66, 1.34-5.29) and adjusted (2.03, 1.01-4.08) analyses, but this association was not observed at higher doses. For women, unadjusted analyses showed a higher risk for ACEI users compared to non-users without hypertension (1.74, 1.07-2.83). This was explained after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, prior fracture and BMD (1.28, 0.74-2.22). No other differences were observed. In men, lower dose (0 < DDD ≤ 1) ARB use was associated with an increased risk of fracture. ACEI or ARB use was not associated with increased risk of incident fracture in women. These findings may be important for antihypertensive treatment decisions in individuals with a high risk of fracture.

Keywords: Angiotensin II receptor blockers; Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; Fracture risk.

Abstract

Medications used to treat hypertension may affect fracture risk. This study investigated fracture risk for users of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). Participants (899 men, median age 70.3 yr (59.9-79.1), range 50.0-96.6 yr; 574 women, median age 65.5 yr (58.1-75.4), range 50.1-94.6 yr) were from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Medication use was self-reported and incident fractures were ascertained using radiological reports. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the femoral neck. Participants were divided into four groups: (1) non-users without hypertension, (2) non-users with hypertension, (3) ACEI users and (4) ARB users. Dosage was calculated using the defined daily dose (DDD) criteria. Participants were followed from date of visit to first fracture, death or 31 December 2016, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for analyses. At least one incident fracture was sustained by 156 men and 135 women over a median(IQR) of 11.5(6.2-13.2) and 10.9(6.3-11.6) years of follow-up, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, compared to non-users without hypertension, men in all three other groups had a higher risk of fracture (Hazard Ratio (HR, 95%CI) 1.54, 1.00-2.37; 1.90, 1.18-3.05; 2.15, 1.26-3.66), for non-users with hypertension, ACEI and ARB users, respectively). Following adjustment for age, prior fracture and BMD, these associations became non-significant. A dose effect for ARB use was observed; men using lower doses had a higher risk of fracture than non-users without hypertension, in both unadjusted (2.66, 1.34-5.29) and adjusted (2.03, 1.01-4.08) analyses, but this association was not observed at higher doses. For women, unadjusted analyses showed a higher risk for ACEI users compared to non-users without hypertension (1.74, 1.07-2.83). This was explained after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, prior fracture and BMD (1.28, 0.74-2.22). No other differences were observed. In men, lower dose (0 < DDD ≤ 1) ARB use was associated with an increased risk of fracture. ACEI or ARB use was not associated with increased risk of incident fracture in women. These findings may be important for antihypertensive treatment decisions in individuals with a high risk of fracture.

Keywords: Angiotensin II receptor blockers; Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; Fracture risk.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Evolutionary Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Health Sciences > Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Life Sciences > Endocrinology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Endocrinology, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Language:English
Date:14 July 2022
Deposited On:09 Jan 2023 10:21
Last Modified:28 Jun 2024 01:37
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0171-967X
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-022-01004-9
PubMed ID:35833952
Project Information:
  • : FunderDeakin University
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)