Among people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the determination of clinical features associated with poor outcome is essential to identify those at high risk of deterioration. Here, we aimed to investigate clinical phenotypes of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 and to examine the predictive value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in a representative patient collective of the Swiss population. We conducted a retrospective monocentriccohort study with patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 between 27 February and 31 December 2020. Data were analyzed descriptively, using the binary logistic regression model, proportional odds logistic regression model, competing risk analysis, and summary measure analysis. A total of 454 patients were included in our study. Dyspnea, elevated respiratory rate, low oxygen saturation at baseline, age, and presence of multiple comorbidities were associated with a more severe course of the disease. A high NLR at baseline was significantly associated with disease severity, unfavorable outcome, and mortality. In non-survivors, NLR further increased during hospital stay, whereas in survivors, NLR decreased. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination upon admission and confirm the role of baseline NLR as a surrogate marker for increased disease severity, unfavorable outcome, and mortality in patients hospitalized due to infection with SARS-CoV-2.
COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio; NLR; disease severity; mortality