Sex mismatch between donor and recipient has been considered a potential contributor to adverse outcomes after solid organ transplantation. However, the influence of sex mismatching in osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has yet to be determined.
To evaluate whether donor-recipient sex mismatching affects graft survival after OCA transplantation.
Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
In this review of prospectively collected data, patients who underwent OCA transplantation between November 2013 and November 2017 by a single surgeon were analyzed. Cumulative survival was assessed via the Kaplan-Meier method using log-rank tests to compare patients with similar donor groups. Multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for patient age, graft size, and body mass index was used to evaluate the influence of donor-recipient sex on graft survival.
A total of 154 patients were included: 102 (66.2%) who received OCAs from a same-sex donor and 52 (33.8%) who received OCAs from a different-sex donor. At 5-year follow-up, a significantly lower graft survival rate was observed for different-sex donor transplantation in comparison with same-sex donorship (63% vs 92%; P = .01). When correcting for age, graft size, and body mass index, donor-recipient sex-mismatch transplantation demonstrated a 2.9-times greater likelihood to fail at 5 years compared with donor-recipient same-sex transplantation (95% CI, 1.11-7.44; P = .03). A subgroup analysis showed no significant difference in graft survival between the female-to-female and female-to-male groups (91% and 84%, respectively). Conversely, male-to-male transplantation demonstrated a significantly higher cumulative 5-year survival (94%; P = .04), whereas lower survival was found with male-to-female donorship (64%; P = .04). Multivariable Cox regression indicated a 2.6-times higher likelihood of failure for the male-to-female group in comparison with the other groups (95% CI, 1.03-6.69; P = .04). Male-to-male transplantation had a tendency toward decreased likelihood of OCA failure (hazard ratio, 0.33), although without statistical significance (95% CI, 0.11-1.01; P = .052).
Mismatch between donor and recipient sex had a negative effect on OCA survival after transplantation, particularly in those cases when male donor tissue was transplanted into a female recipient.