Nutrient loss from terrestrial ecosystems via leaching and gaseous emissions is increasingly threatening global environmental and human health. Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to regulate soil N and P losses, a comprehensive quantitative overviewof their influences on the losses of these soil nutrients across global scales is currently lacking. This study used a meta-analysis of 322 observations from 36 studies to assess the effect of AMF inoculum on 11 variables related to the loss of soil N and P.We found that the presence of AMF significantly reduced soil N and P losses, with the most pronounced reduction occurring in soil NO3 –N (−32%), followed by total P (−21%), available P (−16%) and N2O (−10%). However, the mitigation effects of AMF on soil N and P loss were dependent on the identity of AMF inoculum, plant type and soil biotic and abiotic factors. Generally, the mitigation effects of AMF increased with increasing AMF root colonization rate, microbial diversity of inoculants, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and experimental duration as well as with decreasing soil sand contents and soil N and P availability. Overall, this meta-analysis highlights the importance of AMF inoculation inmitigating N and P nutrient loss and environmental pollution for terrestrial ecosystem sustainability.