Chaperones are proteins that help other proteins fold. They also affect the adaptive evolution of their client proteins by buffering the effect of deleterious mutations and increasing the genetic diversity of evolving proteins. We study how the bacterial chaperone GroE (GroEL+GroES) affects the evolution of green fluorescent protein (GFP). To this end, we subjected GFP to multiple rounds of mutation and selection for its color phenotype in four replicate Escherichia coli populations, and studied its evolutionary dynamics through high-throughput sequencing and mutant engineering. We evolved GFP both under stabilizing selection for its ancestral (green) phenotype, and to directional selection for a new (cyan) phenotype. We did so both under low and high expression of the chaperone GroE. In contrast to previous work, we observe that GroE does not just buffer but also helps purge deleterious (fluorescence reducing) mutations from evolving populations. In doing so, GroE helps reduce the genetic diversity of evolving populations. In addition, it causes phenotypic heterogeneity in mutants with the same genotype, helping to enhance their fluorescence in some cells, and reducing it in others. Our observations show that chaperones can affect adaptive evolution in more than one way.