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Automatic Detection of Adverse Drug Events in Geriatric Care: Study Proposal


Gaspar, Frederic; Lutters, Monika; Beeler, Patrick Emanuel; Lang, Pierre Olivier; Burnand, Bernard; Rinaldi, Fabio; Lovis, Christian; Csajka, Chantal; Le Pogam, Marie-Annick (2022). Automatic Detection of Adverse Drug Events in Geriatric Care: Study Proposal. JMIR research protocols, 11(11):e40456.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

One-third of older inpatients experience adverse drug events (ADEs), which increase their mortality, morbidity, and health care use and costs. In particular, antithrombotic drugs are among the most at-risk medications for this population. Reporting systems have been implemented at the national, regional, and provider levels to monitor ADEs and design prevention strategies. Owing to their well-known limitations, automated detection technologies based on electronic medical records (EMRs) are being developed to routinely detect or predict ADEs.

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to develop and validate an automated detection tool for monitoring antithrombotic-related ADEs using EMRs from 4 large Swiss hospitals. We aim to assess cumulative incidences of hemorrhages and thromboses in older inpatients associated with the prescription of antithrombotic drugs, identify triggering factors, and propose improvements for clinical practice.

METHODS

This project is a multicenter, cross-sectional study based on 2015 to 2016 EMR data from 4 large hospitals in Switzerland: Lausanne, Geneva, and Zürich university hospitals, and Baden Cantonal Hospital. We have included inpatients aged ≥65 years who stayed at 1 of the 4 hospitals during 2015 or 2016, received at least one antithrombotic drug during their stay, and signed or were not opposed to a general consent for participation in research. First, clinical experts selected a list of relevant antithrombotic drugs along with their side effects, risks, and confounding factors. Second, administrative, clinical, prescription, and laboratory data available in the form of free text and structured data were extracted from study participants' EMRs. Third, several automated rule-based and machine learning-based algorithms are being developed, allowing for the identification of hemorrhage and thromboembolic events and their triggering factors from the extracted information. Finally, we plan to validate the developed detection tools (one per ADE type) through manual medical record review. Performance metrics for assessing internal validity will comprise the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, F$_{1}$-score, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values.

RESULTS

After accounting for the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we will include 34,522 residents aged ≥65 years. The data will be analyzed in 2022, and the research project will run until the end of 2022 to mid-2023.

CONCLUSIONS

This project will allow for the introduction of measures to improve safety in prescribing antithrombotic drugs, which today remain among the drugs most involved in ADEs. The findings will be implemented in clinical practice using indicators of adverse events for risk management and training for health care professionals; the tools and methodologies developed will be disseminated for new research in this field. The increased performance of natural language processing as an important complement to structured data will bring existing tools to another level of efficiency in the detection of ADEs. Currently, such systems are unavailable in Switzerland.

INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)

DERR1-10.2196/40456.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

One-third of older inpatients experience adverse drug events (ADEs), which increase their mortality, morbidity, and health care use and costs. In particular, antithrombotic drugs are among the most at-risk medications for this population. Reporting systems have been implemented at the national, regional, and provider levels to monitor ADEs and design prevention strategies. Owing to their well-known limitations, automated detection technologies based on electronic medical records (EMRs) are being developed to routinely detect or predict ADEs.

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to develop and validate an automated detection tool for monitoring antithrombotic-related ADEs using EMRs from 4 large Swiss hospitals. We aim to assess cumulative incidences of hemorrhages and thromboses in older inpatients associated with the prescription of antithrombotic drugs, identify triggering factors, and propose improvements for clinical practice.

METHODS

This project is a multicenter, cross-sectional study based on 2015 to 2016 EMR data from 4 large hospitals in Switzerland: Lausanne, Geneva, and Zürich university hospitals, and Baden Cantonal Hospital. We have included inpatients aged ≥65 years who stayed at 1 of the 4 hospitals during 2015 or 2016, received at least one antithrombotic drug during their stay, and signed or were not opposed to a general consent for participation in research. First, clinical experts selected a list of relevant antithrombotic drugs along with their side effects, risks, and confounding factors. Second, administrative, clinical, prescription, and laboratory data available in the form of free text and structured data were extracted from study participants' EMRs. Third, several automated rule-based and machine learning-based algorithms are being developed, allowing for the identification of hemorrhage and thromboembolic events and their triggering factors from the extracted information. Finally, we plan to validate the developed detection tools (one per ADE type) through manual medical record review. Performance metrics for assessing internal validity will comprise the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, F$_{1}$-score, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values.

RESULTS

After accounting for the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we will include 34,522 residents aged ≥65 years. The data will be analyzed in 2022, and the research project will run until the end of 2022 to mid-2023.

CONCLUSIONS

This project will allow for the introduction of measures to improve safety in prescribing antithrombotic drugs, which today remain among the drugs most involved in ADEs. The findings will be implemented in clinical practice using indicators of adverse events for risk management and training for health care professionals; the tools and methodologies developed will be disseminated for new research in this field. The increased performance of natural language processing as an important complement to structured data will bring existing tools to another level of efficiency in the detection of ADEs. Currently, such systems are unavailable in Switzerland.

INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)

DERR1-10.2196/40456.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:15 November 2022
Deposited On:20 Jan 2023 09:17
Last Modified:28 Apr 2024 01:45
Publisher:JMIR Publications
ISSN:1929-0748
Additional Information:SwissMADE study
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2196/40456
PubMed ID:36378522
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)