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Association of Ramadan Participation with Psychological Parameters: A Cross-Sectional Study during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran


Akbari, Hesam Addin; Yoosefi, Mohammad; Pourabbas, Maryam; Weiss, Katja; Knechtle, Beat; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Trakada, Georgia; Ben Saad, Helmi; Lavie, Carl J; Ghram, Amine (2022). Association of Ramadan Participation with Psychological Parameters: A Cross-Sectional Study during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(9):23466.

Abstract

COVID-19 restrictions are associated with poor physical-activity (PA). Less is known about the relationship between the combination of these restrictions with Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF), PA, mental health, and sleep-quality. The present study aimed to evaluate whether COVID-19 restrictions and RIF during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran are associated with poor PA, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality outcomes. A total of 510 individuals participated in an online questionnaire that was disseminated to adults (≥18 years) residing in Iran from 13 May 2021 to 16 May 2021 (~3 days), just after the end of Ramadan 2021. PA behavior (Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), well-being (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form), and sleep-quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Of 510 individuals included in the study (331 female (64.9%); mean ± SD, 31 ± 12 years), 172 (33.7%) reported less PA during the Ramadan 2021. PA was associated with better well-being and sleep-quality outcomes. Regardless of PA, participants who fasted for all of Ramadan had less anxiety and better well-being outcomes than those who fasted part of Ramadan or did not fast at all. However, the fasting part of Ramadan decreased the sleep-quality of active participants. The Ramadan 2021 was associated with poor PA, well-being, and sleep-quality of Iranians. However, PA was associated with better well-being and sleep-quality outcomes, and those who fasted all Ramadan had better anxiety and well-being outcomes. Therefore, PA during Ramadan might be an essential and scalable mental health resilience builder during COVID-19 restrictions which should be encouraged.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; exercise training; feasting; holy month; lockdown; mental health; sleep-quality.

Abstract

COVID-19 restrictions are associated with poor physical-activity (PA). Less is known about the relationship between the combination of these restrictions with Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF), PA, mental health, and sleep-quality. The present study aimed to evaluate whether COVID-19 restrictions and RIF during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran are associated with poor PA, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality outcomes. A total of 510 individuals participated in an online questionnaire that was disseminated to adults (≥18 years) residing in Iran from 13 May 2021 to 16 May 2021 (~3 days), just after the end of Ramadan 2021. PA behavior (Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), well-being (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form), and sleep-quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Of 510 individuals included in the study (331 female (64.9%); mean ± SD, 31 ± 12 years), 172 (33.7%) reported less PA during the Ramadan 2021. PA was associated with better well-being and sleep-quality outcomes. Regardless of PA, participants who fasted for all of Ramadan had less anxiety and better well-being outcomes than those who fasted part of Ramadan or did not fast at all. However, the fasting part of Ramadan decreased the sleep-quality of active participants. The Ramadan 2021 was associated with poor PA, well-being, and sleep-quality of Iranians. However, PA was associated with better well-being and sleep-quality outcomes, and those who fasted all Ramadan had better anxiety and well-being outcomes. Therefore, PA during Ramadan might be an essential and scalable mental health resilience builder during COVID-19 restrictions which should be encouraged.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; exercise training; feasting; holy month; lockdown; mental health; sleep-quality.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:22 April 2022
Deposited On:24 Jan 2023 16:29
Last Modified:31 Jan 2024 10:06
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2077-0383
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092346
PubMed ID:35566470
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)