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Adolescent female handball players present greater bone mass content than soccer players: A cross-sectional study


Fagundes, Ulysses; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Seffrin, Aldo; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Andrade, Marilia Santos; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa (2022). Adolescent female handball players present greater bone mass content than soccer players: A cross-sectional study. Bone, 154:116217.

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic disease affecting half of women over the age of 50 years. Considering that almost 90% of peak of bone mass is achieved until the second decade of life, ensuring a maximal bone mineral content acquisition may compensate for age-associated bone loss. Among several other factors, physical activity has been recommended to improve bone mass acquisition. However, it is unknown whether athletes involved with sports with different impact loading characteristics differ in regards to bone mass measurements.

Aim: To compare the bone mass content, bone mass density and lean mass of young female soccer players (odd-impact loading exercise), handball players (high-impact loading exercises) and non-athletes.

Methods: A total of 115 female handball players (15.5 ± 1.3 years, 165.2 ± 5.6 cm and 61.9 ± 9.3 kg) and 142 soccer players (15.5 ± 1.5 years, 163.7 ± 6.6 cm and 56.5 ± 7.7 kg) were evaluated for body composition using a dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry system, and 136 female non-athletes (data from NHANES) (15.1 ± 1.32 years, 163.5 ± 5.8 cm and 67.2 ± 19.4 kg) were considered as the control.

Results: Handball players presented higher bone mass content values than soccer players for upper limbs (294.8 ± 40.2 g and 270.7 ± 45.7 g, p < 0.001), lower limbs (1011.6 ± 145.5 g and 967.7 ± 144.3 g, p = 0.035), trunk (911.1 ± 182.5 g and 841.6 ± 163.7 g, p = 0.001), ribs (312.4 ± 69.9 g and 272.9 ± 58.0 g, p < 0.001), spine (245.1 ± 46.8 g and 222.0 ± 45.1 g, p < 0.001) and total bone mass (2708.7 ± 384.1 g and 2534.8 ± 386.0 g, p < 0.001). Moreover, non-athletes presented lower bone mass content for lower limbs (740.6 ± 132.3 g, p < 0.001), trunk (539.7 ± 98.6 g, p < 0.001), ribs (138.2 ± 29.9 g, p < 0.001), pelvis (238.9 ± 54.6 g, p < 0.001), spine (152.8 ± 26.4 g, p < 0.001) and total bone mass (1987.5 ± 311.3 g, p < 0.001) than both handball and soccer players. Handball players also presented higher bone mass density values than soccer players for trunk, ribs and spine (p < 0.05) and handball and soccer players presented higher bone mass density than non-athletes for all measurements (p < 0.005). Finally, the non-athletes' lower limb lean mass was lower than soccer and handball players values (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Adolescent females engaged in handball training for at least one year present higher bone mass contents than those who are engaged in soccer training, which, in turn, present higher bone mass contents than non-athletes. These results might be used by physicians and healthcare providers to justify the choice of a particular sport to enhance bone mass gain in female adolescents.

Keywords: Body composition; Bone mass; Exercise; Exercise training; Osteoporosis

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic disease affecting half of women over the age of 50 years. Considering that almost 90% of peak of bone mass is achieved until the second decade of life, ensuring a maximal bone mineral content acquisition may compensate for age-associated bone loss. Among several other factors, physical activity has been recommended to improve bone mass acquisition. However, it is unknown whether athletes involved with sports with different impact loading characteristics differ in regards to bone mass measurements.

Aim: To compare the bone mass content, bone mass density and lean mass of young female soccer players (odd-impact loading exercise), handball players (high-impact loading exercises) and non-athletes.

Methods: A total of 115 female handball players (15.5 ± 1.3 years, 165.2 ± 5.6 cm and 61.9 ± 9.3 kg) and 142 soccer players (15.5 ± 1.5 years, 163.7 ± 6.6 cm and 56.5 ± 7.7 kg) were evaluated for body composition using a dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry system, and 136 female non-athletes (data from NHANES) (15.1 ± 1.32 years, 163.5 ± 5.8 cm and 67.2 ± 19.4 kg) were considered as the control.

Results: Handball players presented higher bone mass content values than soccer players for upper limbs (294.8 ± 40.2 g and 270.7 ± 45.7 g, p < 0.001), lower limbs (1011.6 ± 145.5 g and 967.7 ± 144.3 g, p = 0.035), trunk (911.1 ± 182.5 g and 841.6 ± 163.7 g, p = 0.001), ribs (312.4 ± 69.9 g and 272.9 ± 58.0 g, p < 0.001), spine (245.1 ± 46.8 g and 222.0 ± 45.1 g, p < 0.001) and total bone mass (2708.7 ± 384.1 g and 2534.8 ± 386.0 g, p < 0.001). Moreover, non-athletes presented lower bone mass content for lower limbs (740.6 ± 132.3 g, p < 0.001), trunk (539.7 ± 98.6 g, p < 0.001), ribs (138.2 ± 29.9 g, p < 0.001), pelvis (238.9 ± 54.6 g, p < 0.001), spine (152.8 ± 26.4 g, p < 0.001) and total bone mass (1987.5 ± 311.3 g, p < 0.001) than both handball and soccer players. Handball players also presented higher bone mass density values than soccer players for trunk, ribs and spine (p < 0.05) and handball and soccer players presented higher bone mass density than non-athletes for all measurements (p < 0.005). Finally, the non-athletes' lower limb lean mass was lower than soccer and handball players values (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Adolescent females engaged in handball training for at least one year present higher bone mass contents than those who are engaged in soccer training, which, in turn, present higher bone mass contents than non-athletes. These results might be used by physicians and healthcare providers to justify the choice of a particular sport to enhance bone mass gain in female adolescents.

Keywords: Body composition; Bone mass; Exercise; Exercise training; Osteoporosis

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Life Sciences > Physiology
Health Sciences > Histology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Histology, Physiology, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Language:English
Date:1 January 2022
Deposited On:24 Jan 2023 16:46
Last Modified:28 Jun 2024 01:40
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1873-2763
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116217
PubMed ID:34583063