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Surface Accumulation of Cerium, Self-Assembling Peptide, and Fluoride on Sound Bovine Enamel


Scholz, Konstantin Johannes; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Ebensberger, Helga; Ferstl, Gerlinde; Pielnhofer, Florian; Tauböck, Tobias T; Becker, Klaus; Buchalla, Wolfgang (2022). Surface Accumulation of Cerium, Self-Assembling Peptide, and Fluoride on Sound Bovine Enamel. Bioengineering, 9(12):760.

Abstract

The accumulation of caries-preventive compounds on sound enamel is crucial in order to improve the inhibition of carious lesion initiation. The aim of this research was to investigate the initial accumulation of cerium, oligopeptide p11-4, and fluoride from NaF or amine fluoride (AmF) on sound enamel in vitro by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Polished bovine enamel specimens (n = 120 from 60 teeth) were fabricated. Out of these, 12 specimens each were treated with CeCl3 (cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate 25%), oligopeptide p11-4 (Curodont Repair, Credentis), NaF (10,000 ppm F-), AmF (amine fluoride, Elmex Fluid, CP-GABA GmbH, 10,000 ppm F-), or Aqua demin (control). After rinsing with water, the surface elemental composition (Ce, N, F, Ca, P, O, Na, Mg) was measured (EDX; EDAX Octane Elect detector, APEX v2.0), expressed in atomic percent (At%) and analyzed (non-parametric statistics, α = 0.05, error rates method). Another 12 specimens per treatment group were fabricated and used for analyzing accumulation in cross-sections with EDX linescans and two-dimensional EDX-mappings. The surface median atomic percent of cerium (At%Ce) was 0.8 for CeCl3, but no Ce was found for any other group. N, specifically for oligopeptide p11-4, could not be detected. Fluorine could only be detected on fluoridated surfaces. The median atomic percent of fluorine (At%F) was 15.2 for NaF and 17.0 for AmF. The Ca/P ratio increased significantly compared to the control following the application of NaF and AmF (p < 0.001), but decreased significantly for CeCl3 (p < 0.001). In cross-sectioned specimens of the CeCl3-group, 12.5% of the linescans revealed cerium at the enamel surface, whereas 83.3% of the NaF linescans and 95.8% of the AmF linescans revealed fluorine at the enamel surface. Following the application of oligopeptide p11-4, no traces of N were detectable. In the depth of the samples, no signal was detected for any of the corresponding elements exceeding the background noise. Cerium and fluorine (from both NaF and AmF), but not the oligopeptide p11-4, precipitated on sound enamel.

Keywords: EDX; caries prevention; chemical composition.

Abstract

The accumulation of caries-preventive compounds on sound enamel is crucial in order to improve the inhibition of carious lesion initiation. The aim of this research was to investigate the initial accumulation of cerium, oligopeptide p11-4, and fluoride from NaF or amine fluoride (AmF) on sound enamel in vitro by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Polished bovine enamel specimens (n = 120 from 60 teeth) were fabricated. Out of these, 12 specimens each were treated with CeCl3 (cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate 25%), oligopeptide p11-4 (Curodont Repair, Credentis), NaF (10,000 ppm F-), AmF (amine fluoride, Elmex Fluid, CP-GABA GmbH, 10,000 ppm F-), or Aqua demin (control). After rinsing with water, the surface elemental composition (Ce, N, F, Ca, P, O, Na, Mg) was measured (EDX; EDAX Octane Elect detector, APEX v2.0), expressed in atomic percent (At%) and analyzed (non-parametric statistics, α = 0.05, error rates method). Another 12 specimens per treatment group were fabricated and used for analyzing accumulation in cross-sections with EDX linescans and two-dimensional EDX-mappings. The surface median atomic percent of cerium (At%Ce) was 0.8 for CeCl3, but no Ce was found for any other group. N, specifically for oligopeptide p11-4, could not be detected. Fluorine could only be detected on fluoridated surfaces. The median atomic percent of fluorine (At%F) was 15.2 for NaF and 17.0 for AmF. The Ca/P ratio increased significantly compared to the control following the application of NaF and AmF (p < 0.001), but decreased significantly for CeCl3 (p < 0.001). In cross-sectioned specimens of the CeCl3-group, 12.5% of the linescans revealed cerium at the enamel surface, whereas 83.3% of the NaF linescans and 95.8% of the AmF linescans revealed fluorine at the enamel surface. Following the application of oligopeptide p11-4, no traces of N were detectable. In the depth of the samples, no signal was detected for any of the corresponding elements exceeding the background noise. Cerium and fluorine (from both NaF and AmF), but not the oligopeptide p11-4, precipitated on sound enamel.

Keywords: EDX; caries prevention; chemical composition.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Bioengineering
Language:English
Date:3 December 2022
Deposited On:27 Jan 2023 10:00
Last Modified:28 Apr 2024 01:47
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2306-5354
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9120760
PubMed ID:36550966
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)