The coactivator PGC-1alpha mediates key responses of skeletal muscle to motor nerve activity. We show here that neuregulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PGC-1alpha and GA-binding protein (GABP) allows recruitment of PGC-1alpha to the GABP complex and enhances transcription of a broad neuromuscular junction gene program. Since a subset of genes controlled by PGC-1alpha and GABP is dysregulated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), we examined the effects of transgenic PGC-1alpha in muscle of mdx mice. These animals show improvement in parameters characteristic of DMD, including muscle histology, running performance, and plasma creatine kinase levels. Thus, control of PGC-1alpha levels in skeletal muscle could represent a novel avenue to prevent or treat DMD.