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Search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo


Ebersold, M; Hamilton, Eleanor Z; Haney, M; Lopez, D; Tiwari, S; Adhikari, N; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agarwal, D; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Akutsu, T; Albanesi, S; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Amato, A; Anand, C; Anand, S; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Ando, M; Andrade, T; Andres, N; et al (2022). Search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 659:A84.

Abstract

Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) span the approximate mass range 100−10$^{5}$ M$_{⊙}$, between black holes (BHs) that formed by stellar collapse and the supermassive BHs at the centers of galaxies. Mergers of IMBH binaries are the most energetic gravitational-wave sources accessible by the terrestrial detector network. Searches of the first two observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo did not yield any significant IMBH binary signals. In the third observing run (O3), the increased network sensitivity enabled the detection of GW190521, a signal consistent with a binary merger of mass ∼150 M$_{⊙}$ providing direct evidence of IMBH formation. Here, we report on a dedicated search of O3 data for further IMBH binary mergers, combining both modeled (matched filter) and model-independent search methods. We find some marginal candidates, but none are sufficiently significant to indicate detection of further IMBH mergers. We quantify the sensitivity of the individual search methods and of the combined search using a suite of IMBH binary signals obtained via numerical relativity, including the effects of spins misaligned with the binary orbital axis, and present the resulting upper limits on astrophysical merger rates. Our most stringent limit is for equal mass and aligned spin BH binary of total mass 200 M$_{⊙}$ and effective aligned spin 0.8 at 0.056 Gpc$^{−3}$ yr$^{−1}$ (90% confidence), a factor of 3.5 more constraining than previous LIGO-Virgo limits. We also update the estimated rate of mergers similar to GW190521 to 0.08 Gpc$^{−3}$ yr$^{−1}$.

Abstract

Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) span the approximate mass range 100−10$^{5}$ M$_{⊙}$, between black holes (BHs) that formed by stellar collapse and the supermassive BHs at the centers of galaxies. Mergers of IMBH binaries are the most energetic gravitational-wave sources accessible by the terrestrial detector network. Searches of the first two observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo did not yield any significant IMBH binary signals. In the third observing run (O3), the increased network sensitivity enabled the detection of GW190521, a signal consistent with a binary merger of mass ∼150 M$_{⊙}$ providing direct evidence of IMBH formation. Here, we report on a dedicated search of O3 data for further IMBH binary mergers, combining both modeled (matched filter) and model-independent search methods. We find some marginal candidates, but none are sufficiently significant to indicate detection of further IMBH mergers. We quantify the sensitivity of the individual search methods and of the combined search using a suite of IMBH binary signals obtained via numerical relativity, including the effects of spins misaligned with the binary orbital axis, and present the resulting upper limits on astrophysical merger rates. Our most stringent limit is for equal mass and aligned spin BH binary of total mass 200 M$_{⊙}$ and effective aligned spin 0.8 at 0.056 Gpc$^{−3}$ yr$^{−1}$ (90% confidence), a factor of 3.5 more constraining than previous LIGO-Virgo limits. We also update the estimated rate of mergers similar to GW190521 to 0.08 Gpc$^{−3}$ yr$^{−1}$.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Physical Sciences > Space and Planetary Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:1 March 2022
Deposited On:20 Feb 2023 17:09
Last Modified:28 Jun 2024 01:43
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202141452