The physiological basis for population differentiation of dispersal timing during individual development in male wild house mice is still unknown. As major urinary proteins (MUPs) are known to convey information about competitive ability in male mice, we examined individual MUP profiles defined by isoelectric-focusing (IEF) patterns in relation to developmental timing of dispersive motivation. As an experimental paradigm marking the development of the dispersal propensity, we used agonistic onset between litter mate brothers when kept in pairs under laboratory conditions. Agonistic onset is known to reflect the initiation of dispersive motivation. Hence, we compared individual MUP IEF patterns between fraternal pairs that did or did not develop agonistic relationships before the age of 2 months. Urine was collected on the day of weaning and at the beginning of adulthood. We investigated whether there was a significant co-occurrence of particular MUP IEF patterns with the agonistic onset in male mice. We assumed that, based on this co-occurrence, particular MUP IEF patterns and/or a particular dynamic of MUP IEF expression from weaning to adulthood may be considered a physiological predictor of a specific behavioral strategy in male mice (i.e. submissive-philopatric or agonistic-dispersive strategy). We found that agonistic males expressed more MUP IEF bands than amicable ones at weaning, but these differences disappeared later on. The presence of two particular IEF bands at weaning was significantly associated with early agonistic onset. Our study suggests that MUPs could have a predictive value for the onset of aggressive behavior and dispersal tendency in male wild house mice.