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A variational formulation of the Harris functional as a correction to approximate Kohn–Sham density functional theory


Belleflamme, Fabian; Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg (2023). A variational formulation of the Harris functional as a correction to approximate Kohn–Sham density functional theory. Journal of Chemical Physics, 158(5):054111.

Abstract

Accurate descriptions of intermolecular interactions are of great importance in simulations of molecular liquids. We present an electronic structure method that combines the accuracy of the Harris functional approach with the computational efficiency of approximately linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT). The non-variational nature of the Harris functional has been addressed by constructing a Lagrangian energy functional, which restores the variational condition by imposing stationarity with respect to the reference density. The associated linear response equations may be treated with linear-scaling efficiency in an atomic orbital based scheme. Key ingredients to describe the structural and dynamical properties of molecular systems are the forces acting on the atoms and the stress tensor. These first-order derivatives of the Harris Lagrangian have been derived and implemented in consistence with the energy correction. The proposed method allows for simulations with accuracies close to the Kohn–Sham DFT reference. Embedded in the CP2K program package, the method is designed to enable ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of molecular solutions for system sizes of several thousand atoms. Available subsystem DFT methods may be used to provide the reference density required for the energy correction at near linear-scaling efficiency. As an example of production applications, we applied the method to molecular dynamics simulations of the binary mixtures cyclohexane-methanol and toluene-methanol, performed within the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, to investigate the hydrogen bonding network in these non-ideal mixtures.

Abstract

Accurate descriptions of intermolecular interactions are of great importance in simulations of molecular liquids. We present an electronic structure method that combines the accuracy of the Harris functional approach with the computational efficiency of approximately linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT). The non-variational nature of the Harris functional has been addressed by constructing a Lagrangian energy functional, which restores the variational condition by imposing stationarity with respect to the reference density. The associated linear response equations may be treated with linear-scaling efficiency in an atomic orbital based scheme. Key ingredients to describe the structural and dynamical properties of molecular systems are the forces acting on the atoms and the stress tensor. These first-order derivatives of the Harris Lagrangian have been derived and implemented in consistence with the energy correction. The proposed method allows for simulations with accuracies close to the Kohn–Sham DFT reference. Embedded in the CP2K program package, the method is designed to enable ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of molecular solutions for system sizes of several thousand atoms. Available subsystem DFT methods may be used to provide the reference density required for the energy correction at near linear-scaling efficiency. As an example of production applications, we applied the method to molecular dynamics simulations of the binary mixtures cyclohexane-methanol and toluene-methanol, performed within the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, to investigate the hydrogen bonding network in these non-ideal mixtures.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > General Physics and Astronomy
Physical Sciences > Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, General Physics and Astronomy
Language:English
Date:7 February 2023
Deposited On:26 Feb 2023 11:09
Last Modified:28 Jun 2024 01:43
Publisher:American Institute of Physics
ISSN:0021-9606
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0122671
PubMed ID:36754794
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)