Bacteria secrete siderophores whose function is to acquire iron. In recent years, the siderophores of several Chryseobacterium species were shown to promote the health and growth of various plants such as tomato or rice. However, the chemical nature of Chryseobacterium siderophores remained unexplored despite great interest. In this work, we present the purification and structure elucidation by NMR and MS/MS of chryseochelin A, a novel citrate-based siderophore secreted by three Chryseobacterium strains involved in plant protection. It contains the unusual building blocks 3-hydroxycadaverine and fumaric acid. Furthermore, the unstable structural isomer chryseochelin B and its stable derivative containing fatty acid chains, named chryseochelin C, were identified by mass spectrometric methods. The latter two incorporate an unusual ester connectivity to the citrate moiety showing similarities to achromobactin from the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii. Finally, we show that chryseochelin A acts in a concentration-dependent manner against the plant-pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain by reducing its access to iron. Thus, our study provides valuable knowledge about the siderophores of Chryseobacterium strains, which have great potential in various applications.