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Transposable Element Populations Shed Light on the Evolutionary History of Wheat and the Complex Co-Evolution of Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons


Wicker, Thomas; Stritt, Christoph; Sotiropoulos, Alexandros G; Poretti, Manuel; Pozniak, Curtis J; Walkowiak, Sean; Gundlach, Heidrun; Stein, Nils (2022). Transposable Element Populations Shed Light on the Evolutionary History of Wheat and the Complex Co-Evolution of Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons. Advanced Genetics, 3(1):2100022.

Abstract

Wheat has one of the largest and most repetitive genomes among major crop plants, containing over 85% transposable elements (TEs). TEs populate genomes much in the way that individuals populate ecosystems, diversifying into different lineages, sub-families and sub-populations. The recent availability of high-quality, chromosome-scale genome sequences from ten wheat lines enables a detailed analysis how TEs evolved in allohexaploid wheat, its diploids progenitors, and in various chromosomal haplotype segments. LTR retrotransposon families evolved into distinct sub-populations and sub-families that were active in waves lasting several hundred thousand years. Furthermore, It is shown that different retrotransposon sub-families were active in the three wheat sub-genomes, making them useful markers to study and date polyploidization events and chromosomal rearrangements. Additionally, haplotype-specific TE sub-families are used to characterize chromosomal introgressions in different wheat lines. Additionally, populations of non-autonomous TEs co-evolved over millions of years with their autonomous partners, leading to complex systems with multiple types of autonomous, semi-autonomous and non-autonomous elements. Phylogenetic and TE population analyses revealed the relationships between non-autonomous elements and their mobilizing autonomous partners. TE population analysis provided insights into genome evolution of allohexaploid wheat and genetic diversity of species, and may have implication for future crop breeding.

Abstract

Wheat has one of the largest and most repetitive genomes among major crop plants, containing over 85% transposable elements (TEs). TEs populate genomes much in the way that individuals populate ecosystems, diversifying into different lineages, sub-families and sub-populations. The recent availability of high-quality, chromosome-scale genome sequences from ten wheat lines enables a detailed analysis how TEs evolved in allohexaploid wheat, its diploids progenitors, and in various chromosomal haplotype segments. LTR retrotransposon families evolved into distinct sub-populations and sub-families that were active in waves lasting several hundred thousand years. Furthermore, It is shown that different retrotransposon sub-families were active in the three wheat sub-genomes, making them useful markers to study and date polyploidization events and chromosomal rearrangements. Additionally, haplotype-specific TE sub-families are used to characterize chromosomal introgressions in different wheat lines. Additionally, populations of non-autonomous TEs co-evolved over millions of years with their autonomous partners, leading to complex systems with multiple types of autonomous, semi-autonomous and non-autonomous elements. Phylogenetic and TE population analyses revealed the relationships between non-autonomous elements and their mobilizing autonomous partners. TE population analysis provided insights into genome evolution of allohexaploid wheat and genetic diversity of species, and may have implication for future crop breeding.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
08 Research Priority Programs > Evolution in Action: From Genomes to Ecosystems
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:March 2022
Deposited On:16 Mar 2023 11:21
Last Modified:05 Apr 2023 06:19
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2641-6573
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ggn2.202100022
PubMed ID:36619351
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)