Backgound: The composition of stones formed in the urinary tract plays an important role in their management over time. The most common imaging method for the non-invasive evaluation of urinary stones is radiography and computed tomography (CT). However, CT is not very sensitive, and cannot differentiate between all critical stone types. In this study, we propose the application, and evaluate the potential, of a multi-modal (or multi-contrast) X-ray imaging technique called speckle-based imaging (SBI) to differentiate between various types of urinary stones. Methods: Three different stone samples were extracted from animal and human urinary tracts and examined in a laboratory-based speckle tracking setup. The results were discussed based on an X-ray diffraction analysis and a comparison with X-ray microtomography and grating-based interferometry. Results: The stones were classified through compositional analysis by X-ray diffraction. The multi-contrast images obtained using the SBI method provided detailed information about the composition of various urinary stone types, and could differentiate between them. X-ray SBI could provide highly sensitive and high-resolution characterizations of different urinary stones in the radiography mode, comparable to those by grating interferometry. Conclusions: This investigation demonstrated the capability of the SBI technique for the non-invasive classification of urinary stones through radiography in a simple and cost-effective laboratory setting. This opens the possibility for further studies concerning full-field in vivo SBI for the clinical imaging of urinary stones.