Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Resting natural killer cell homeostasis relies on tryptophan/NAD$^{+}$ metabolism and HIF-1α


Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells are forced to cope with different oxygen environments even under resting conditions. The adaptation to low oxygen is regulated by oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The function of HIFs for NK cell activation and metabolic rewiring remains controversial. Activated NK cells are predominantly glycolytic, but the metabolic programs that ensure the maintenance of resting NK cells are enigmatic. By combining in situ metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses in resting murine NK cells, our study defines HIF-1α as a regulator of tryptophan metabolism and cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD$^{+}$ ) levels. The HIF-1α/NAD$^{+}$ axis prevents ROS production during oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and thereby blocks DNA damage and NK cell apoptosis under steady-state conditions. In contrast, in activated NK cells under hypoxia, HIF-1α is required for glycolysis, and forced HIF-1α expression boosts glycolysis and NK cell performance in vitro and in vivo. Our data highlight two distinct pathways by which HIF-1α interferes with NK cell metabolism. While HIF-1α-driven glycolysis is essential for NK cell activation, resting NK cell homeostasis relies on HIF-1α-dependent tryptophan/NAD$^{+}$ metabolism.

Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells are forced to cope with different oxygen environments even under resting conditions. The adaptation to low oxygen is regulated by oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The function of HIFs for NK cell activation and metabolic rewiring remains controversial. Activated NK cells are predominantly glycolytic, but the metabolic programs that ensure the maintenance of resting NK cells are enigmatic. By combining in situ metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses in resting murine NK cells, our study defines HIF-1α as a regulator of tryptophan metabolism and cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD$^{+}$ ) levels. The HIF-1α/NAD$^{+}$ axis prevents ROS production during oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and thereby blocks DNA damage and NK cell apoptosis under steady-state conditions. In contrast, in activated NK cells under hypoxia, HIF-1α is required for glycolysis, and forced HIF-1α expression boosts glycolysis and NK cell performance in vitro and in vivo. Our data highlight two distinct pathways by which HIF-1α interferes with NK cell metabolism. While HIF-1α-driven glycolysis is essential for NK cell activation, resting NK cell homeostasis relies on HIF-1α-dependent tryptophan/NAD$^{+}$ metabolism.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
4 citations in Web of Science®
3 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

12 downloads since deposited on 13 Apr 2023
6 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Anatomy
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:5 June 2023
Deposited On:13 Apr 2023 13:12
Last Modified:30 May 2024 01:40
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1469-221X
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202256156
PubMed ID:36987917
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)