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High mutation detection rates in cerebral cavernous malformation upon stringent inclusion criteria: one-third of probands are minors


Abstract

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are prevalent vascular malformations occurring in familial autosomal dominantly inherited or isolated forms. Once CCM are diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, the indication for genetic testing requires either a positive family history of cavernous lesions or clinical symptoms such as chronic headaches, epilepsy, neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke or the occurrence of multiple lesions in an isolated case. Following these inclusion criteria, the mutation detection rates in a consecutive series of 105 probands were 87% for familial and 57% for isolated cases. Thirty-one novel mutations were identified with a slight shift towards proportionally more CCM3 mutations carriers than previously published (CCM1: 60%, CCM2: 18%, CCM3: 22%). In-frame deletions and exonic missense variants requiring functional analyses to establish their pathogenicity were rare: An in-frame deletion within the C-terminal FERM domain of CCM1 resulted in decreased protein expression and impaired binding to the transmembrane protein heart of glass (HEG1). Notably, 20% of index cases carrying a CCM mutation were below age 10 and 33% below age 18 when referred for genetic testing. Since fulminant disease courses during the first years of life were observed in CCM1 and CCM3 mutation carriers, predictive testing of minor siblings became an issue.

Abstract

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are prevalent vascular malformations occurring in familial autosomal dominantly inherited or isolated forms. Once CCM are diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, the indication for genetic testing requires either a positive family history of cavernous lesions or clinical symptoms such as chronic headaches, epilepsy, neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke or the occurrence of multiple lesions in an isolated case. Following these inclusion criteria, the mutation detection rates in a consecutive series of 105 probands were 87% for familial and 57% for isolated cases. Thirty-one novel mutations were identified with a slight shift towards proportionally more CCM3 mutations carriers than previously published (CCM1: 60%, CCM2: 18%, CCM3: 22%). In-frame deletions and exonic missense variants requiring functional analyses to establish their pathogenicity were rare: An in-frame deletion within the C-terminal FERM domain of CCM1 resulted in decreased protein expression and impaired binding to the transmembrane protein heart of glass (HEG1). Notably, 20% of index cases carrying a CCM mutation were below age 10 and 33% below age 18 when referred for genetic testing. Since fulminant disease courses during the first years of life were observed in CCM1 and CCM3 mutation carriers, predictive testing of minor siblings became an issue.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > Genetics
Health Sciences > Genetics (clinical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics, Genetics (clinical), Age at disease onset, CCM1, CCM2, CCM3, cerebral cavernous malformation, HEG1, mutation detection rate, predictive testing
Language:English
Date:March 2014
Deposited On:19 Apr 2023 12:22
Last Modified:29 Mar 2024 04:33
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2324-9269
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.60
PubMed ID:24689081
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0)