Avian mycobacteriosis is an important disease which affects exotic, wild and domestic birds. The disease is most commonly caused by the ubiquitous soil and water organisms Mycobacterium avium sp. avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Mycobacteriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pet bird with chronic disease characterized by weight loss, an inflammatory leukogram and abdominal enlargement.Ante mortem diagnosis of avian mycobacteriosis in birds remains difficult. The present case report describes that even in very small species such as a budgerigar the investigating of a biopsy sample is an efficient way to rule out or confirm the disease in cases where other methods fail to be conclusive.