A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the specific determination of mitoxantrone (MTO) in whole blood and different tissues of mice (liver, heart, spleen, kidneys). MTO was extracted into dichloromethane with ametantrone (AMT) as internal standard. The different tissues were homogenised in citrate buffer (pH 3.0) containing 20% ascorbic acid. Separation of MTO and AMT was carried out using a Nucleosil C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (33%) and 0.16 M ammonium formate buffer, pH 2.7. UV detection was used at 658 nm. Baseline separation of AMT and MTO was achieved in all matrices. The calibration curves were linear in all matrices (r > 0.999) in the concentration range of 2-200 micrograms/l for whole blood and 2-700 micrograms/l for tissue homogenates, respectively. The within-day and between-day precision studies showed good reproducibility with coefficients of variation below 4.5% for whole blood and below 10% for tissue homogenates, respectively. The extraction efficiencies of MTO are 60% in whole blood and 38% in tissue homogenates. The method described is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies on the distribution of MTO in different tissues of mice.