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Follower behavior renders leader behavior endogenous: The simultaneity problem, estimation challenges, and solutions


Güntner, Amelie Verena; Klonek, Florian E; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone (2020). Follower behavior renders leader behavior endogenous: The simultaneity problem, estimation challenges, and solutions. Leadership Quarterly, 31(6):101441.

Abstract

Traditionally, leadership research has focused on unidirectional questions in which leader attributes are considered to determine follower outcomes. However, many phenomena between leaders (x) and followers (y) involve a simultaneous influence process in which x affects y, and y also affects x (i.e., simultaneity). Unfortunately, this simultaneity bias creates endogeneity and is often not properly addressed in the extant leadership literature. In three studies, we demonstrate the challenges of simultaneity bias and present two methodological solutions that can help to correct problems of simultaneity bias. We focus on simultaneity that occurs between follower resistance and leader control. We mathematically demonstrate the simultaneity bias using a simulated dataset and show how this bias can be statistically solved using an instrumental variable estimation approach. Furthermore, we present how the simultaneity bias can be resolved using an experimental design. We discuss how our approach advances theory and methods for leadership research.

Abstract

Traditionally, leadership research has focused on unidirectional questions in which leader attributes are considered to determine follower outcomes. However, many phenomena between leaders (x) and followers (y) involve a simultaneous influence process in which x affects y, and y also affects x (i.e., simultaneity). Unfortunately, this simultaneity bias creates endogeneity and is often not properly addressed in the extant leadership literature. In three studies, we demonstrate the challenges of simultaneity bias and present two methodological solutions that can help to correct problems of simultaneity bias. We focus on simultaneity that occurs between follower resistance and leader control. We mathematically demonstrate the simultaneity bias using a simulated dataset and show how this bias can be statistically solved using an instrumental variable estimation approach. Furthermore, we present how the simultaneity bias can be resolved using an experimental design. We discuss how our approach advances theory and methods for leadership research.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Scopus Subject Areas:Social Sciences & Humanities > Business and International Management
Social Sciences & Humanities > Sociology and Political Science
Social Sciences & Humanities > Applied Psychology
Social Sciences & Humanities > Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Uncontrolled Keywords:Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management, Sociology and Political Science, Applied Psychology, Business and International Management
Language:English
Date:1 December 2020
Deposited On:10 May 2023 14:11
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:36
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1048-9843
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2020.101441