Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Temporal dynamics of total and bioavailable fungicide concentrations in soil and their effect upon nine soil microbial markers


Riedo, Judith; Yokota, Aya; Walther, Barbara; Bartolomé, Nora; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Bucheli, Thomas D; Walder, Florian (2023). Temporal dynamics of total and bioavailable fungicide concentrations in soil and their effect upon nine soil microbial markers. Science of the Total Environment, 878:162995.

Abstract

Pesticides constitute an integral part of today's agriculture. Their widespread use leads to ubiquitous contamination of the environment, including soils. Soils are a precious resource providing vital functions to society - thus, it is of utmost importance to thoroughly assess the risk posed by widespread pesticide contamination. The exposure of non-target organisms to pesticides in soils is challenging to quantify since only a fraction of the total pesticide concentration is bioavailable. Here we measured and compared the bioavailable and total concentrations of three fungicides - boscalid, azoxystrobin, and epoxiconazole - and evaluated which concentration best predicts effects on nine microbial markers. The experiments were performed in three different soils at five time points over two months employing nearly 900 microcosms with a model plant. The total and bioavailable concentrations of azoxystrobin and boscalid decreased steadily during the trial to levels of 25 % and 8 % of the original concentration, respectively, while the concentration of epoxiconazole in soil nearly remained unchanged. The bioavailable fraction generally showed a slightly faster and more pronounced decline. The microbial markers varied in their sensitivity to the three fungicides. Specific microbial markers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, were most sensitive to each of the fungicide treatments, making them suitable indicators for pesticide effects. Even though the responses were predominantly negative, they were also transient, and the impact was no longer evident after two months. Finally, the bioavailable fraction did not better predict the relationships between exposure and effect than the total concentration. This study demonstrates that key microbial groups are temporarily susceptible to a single fungicide application, pointing to the risk that repeated use of pesticides may disrupt vital soil functions such as nutrient cycling in agroecosystems.

Abstract

Pesticides constitute an integral part of today's agriculture. Their widespread use leads to ubiquitous contamination of the environment, including soils. Soils are a precious resource providing vital functions to society - thus, it is of utmost importance to thoroughly assess the risk posed by widespread pesticide contamination. The exposure of non-target organisms to pesticides in soils is challenging to quantify since only a fraction of the total pesticide concentration is bioavailable. Here we measured and compared the bioavailable and total concentrations of three fungicides - boscalid, azoxystrobin, and epoxiconazole - and evaluated which concentration best predicts effects on nine microbial markers. The experiments were performed in three different soils at five time points over two months employing nearly 900 microcosms with a model plant. The total and bioavailable concentrations of azoxystrobin and boscalid decreased steadily during the trial to levels of 25 % and 8 % of the original concentration, respectively, while the concentration of epoxiconazole in soil nearly remained unchanged. The bioavailable fraction generally showed a slightly faster and more pronounced decline. The microbial markers varied in their sensitivity to the three fungicides. Specific microbial markers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, were most sensitive to each of the fungicide treatments, making them suitable indicators for pesticide effects. Even though the responses were predominantly negative, they were also transient, and the impact was no longer evident after two months. Finally, the bioavailable fraction did not better predict the relationships between exposure and effect than the total concentration. This study demonstrates that key microbial groups are temporarily susceptible to a single fungicide application, pointing to the risk that repeated use of pesticides may disrupt vital soil functions such as nutrient cycling in agroecosystems.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
4 citations in Web of Science®
4 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

1 download since deposited on 27 Jun 2023
1 download since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Environmental Engineering
Physical Sciences > Environmental Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Waste Management and Disposal
Physical Sciences > Pollution
Language:English
Date:20 June 2023
Deposited On:27 Jun 2023 12:05
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:36
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0048-9697
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162995
PubMed ID:36948305