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Risk of congenital malformation after first trimester mRNA COVID-19 vaccine exposure in pregnancy: the COVI-PREG prospective cohort


Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study aimed to evaluate the risk of congenital malformation among pregnant women exposed to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a developmental period where the foetus is at risk of teratogenicity.

METHODS

Pregnant women were prospectively enrolled from March 2021 to March 2022, at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnant women exposed to at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from conception to 11 weeks of gestations and 6 days were compared with pregnant women exposed to the vaccine from 12 weeks to the end of pregnancy. The primary outcome was a confirmed congenital malformation at birth.

RESULTS

A total of 1450 pregnant women were enrolled including 124 in the first trimester and 1326 in the second and third trimester. The overall proportion of congenital malformation was 0.81% (n = 1/124; 95% CI: 0.02-4.41) and 0.83% (n = 11/1326; 95% CI: 0.41-1.48) among pregnant exposed to the COVID-19 vaccine during the first and second/third trimester, respectively. First trimester exposure was not associated with a higher risk of congenital malformation with a relative risk of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.12-6.80) with no significant changes after adjustment through exploratory analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Pregnant women exposed to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine before 12 weeks of gestation did not have an increased risk of congenital malformation compared with women exposed outside the teratogenic window. Because vaccination is safe and effective, emphasis must be placed on promoting vaccination during pregnancy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study aimed to evaluate the risk of congenital malformation among pregnant women exposed to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a developmental period where the foetus is at risk of teratogenicity.

METHODS

Pregnant women were prospectively enrolled from March 2021 to March 2022, at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnant women exposed to at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from conception to 11 weeks of gestations and 6 days were compared with pregnant women exposed to the vaccine from 12 weeks to the end of pregnancy. The primary outcome was a confirmed congenital malformation at birth.

RESULTS

A total of 1450 pregnant women were enrolled including 124 in the first trimester and 1326 in the second and third trimester. The overall proportion of congenital malformation was 0.81% (n = 1/124; 95% CI: 0.02-4.41) and 0.83% (n = 11/1326; 95% CI: 0.41-1.48) among pregnant exposed to the COVID-19 vaccine during the first and second/third trimester, respectively. First trimester exposure was not associated with a higher risk of congenital malformation with a relative risk of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.12-6.80) with no significant changes after adjustment through exploratory analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Pregnant women exposed to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine before 12 weeks of gestation did not have an increased risk of congenital malformation compared with women exposed outside the teratogenic window. Because vaccination is safe and effective, emphasis must be placed on promoting vaccination during pregnancy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neonatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:1 October 2023
Deposited On:25 Jul 2023 09:12
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:37
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1198-743X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.015
PubMed ID:37343619
Other Identification Number:PMCID: PMC10279463