An outbreak of herpesvirus caused the death of four of five common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in a private colony. Gross lesions included acute ulcerative gingivitis, glossitis, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Histologically, all fatal cases showed meningoencephalitis and eosinophilia with intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. A herpes simplex-like virus was cultured from the brain and was identified as herpes simplex type 1 virus or a closely related virus by immunofluorescence. Serologic testing (complement fixation test) indicated that the surviving adult female was serologically positive for more than 4 yr and that the offspring she produced was seronegative. The most likely source of the outbreak was the owner who mouth fed hand-raised offspring.