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Elucidating the clinical and molecular spectrum of SMARCC2-associated NDD in a cohort of 65 affected individuals


Abstract

Purpose:
Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes, are recognisable neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline variants in BAF complex subunits. The SMARCC2 BAFopathy was recently reported. Herein, we present clinical and molecular data on a large cohort.

Methods:
Clinical symptoms for 41 novel and 24 previously published affected individuals were analyzed using the Human Phenotype Ontology. For genotype-phenotype correlation, molecular data were standardized and grouped into non-truncating and likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants. Missense variant protein expression and BAF subunit interactions were examined using 3D protein modeling, co-immunoprecipitation, and proximity-ligation assays.

Results:
Neurodevelopmental delay with intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia and behavioral disorders were the major manifestations. Clinical hallmarks of BAFopathies were rare. Clinical presentation differed significantly, with LGD variants being predominantly inherited and associated with mildly reduced or normal cognitive development, while non-truncating variants were mostly de novo and presented with severe developmental delay. These distinct manifestations and non-truncating variant clustering in functional domains suggest different pathomechanisms. In vitro testing showed decreased protein expression for N-terminal missense variants similar to LGD.

Conclusion:
This study improved SMARCC2 variant classification and identified discernible SMARCC2-associated phenotypes for LGD and non-truncating variants, which were distinct from other BAFopathies. The pathomechanism of most non-truncating variants has yet to be investigated.

Abstract

Purpose:
Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes, are recognisable neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline variants in BAF complex subunits. The SMARCC2 BAFopathy was recently reported. Herein, we present clinical and molecular data on a large cohort.

Methods:
Clinical symptoms for 41 novel and 24 previously published affected individuals were analyzed using the Human Phenotype Ontology. For genotype-phenotype correlation, molecular data were standardized and grouped into non-truncating and likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants. Missense variant protein expression and BAF subunit interactions were examined using 3D protein modeling, co-immunoprecipitation, and proximity-ligation assays.

Results:
Neurodevelopmental delay with intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia and behavioral disorders were the major manifestations. Clinical hallmarks of BAFopathies were rare. Clinical presentation differed significantly, with LGD variants being predominantly inherited and associated with mildly reduced or normal cognitive development, while non-truncating variants were mostly de novo and presented with severe developmental delay. These distinct manifestations and non-truncating variant clustering in functional domains suggest different pathomechanisms. In vitro testing showed decreased protein expression for N-terminal missense variants similar to LGD.

Conclusion:
This study improved SMARCC2 variant classification and identified discernible SMARCC2-associated phenotypes for LGD and non-truncating variants, which were distinct from other BAFopathies. The pathomechanism of most non-truncating variants has yet to be investigated.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics (clinical), BAF, BAFopathy, Coffin-Siris syndrome, NDD, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, SMARCC2, neurodevelopmental disorder, SMARCC2
Language:English
Date:1 November 2023
Deposited On:18 Aug 2023 06:10
Last Modified:30 May 2024 01:44
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1098-3600
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gim.2023.100950
PubMed ID:37551667
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)