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Rapid onset hydroxychloroquine toxicity


Jeltsch, Brida M; Sarraf, David; Madjdpour, Darius; Hanson, James V M; Pfiffner, Fatma K; Koller, Samuel; Berger, Wolfgang; Barthelmes, Daniel; Al-Sheikh, Mayss (2024). Rapid onset hydroxychloroquine toxicity. Retinal Cases & Brief Reports, Publish :Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) can cause irreversible damage to the retina, especially when taken over longer periods. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a regimen for dosing, screening and monitoring of patients treated with HCQ. We present an unusual case of a rapid development of severe HCQ-associated-retinopathy already after 2 years after commencing HCQ treatment.

METHODS
Observational case report. Clinical examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF), perimetry, full-field & multifocal electroretinography (ERG) were performed. Ancillary tests included neoplastic and paraneoplastic work-up, vitamin levels and whole exome sequencing, in order to rule out other potential causes of a panretinal degeneration.

RESULTS
We report on a 58-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, treated initially with 200mg HCQ daily for 1 year (daily dose 3.6mg/kg), then 400mg daily for 1 year (daily dose 7.2mg/kg), and a cumulative dose of 216 g. Her medical history was otherwise unremarkable. No family history for inherited retinal conditions. She was referred due to a rapid and sudden progressive and severe concentric visual field constriction, two years after commencing HCQ treatment.

CONCLUSION
This case of a rapid-onset, severe panretinal degeneration shortly after start of HCQ treatment suggests underlying mechanisms and risk factors for HCQ toxicity in addition to those previously reported, and a potential need for supplementary screening tests to prevent HCQ toxicity. AAO dosing guidelines of 5 MG/KG should be strictly adhered to in patients receiving HCQ therapy.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) can cause irreversible damage to the retina, especially when taken over longer periods. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a regimen for dosing, screening and monitoring of patients treated with HCQ. We present an unusual case of a rapid development of severe HCQ-associated-retinopathy already after 2 years after commencing HCQ treatment.

METHODS
Observational case report. Clinical examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF), perimetry, full-field & multifocal electroretinography (ERG) were performed. Ancillary tests included neoplastic and paraneoplastic work-up, vitamin levels and whole exome sequencing, in order to rule out other potential causes of a panretinal degeneration.

RESULTS
We report on a 58-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, treated initially with 200mg HCQ daily for 1 year (daily dose 3.6mg/kg), then 400mg daily for 1 year (daily dose 7.2mg/kg), and a cumulative dose of 216 g. Her medical history was otherwise unremarkable. No family history for inherited retinal conditions. She was referred due to a rapid and sudden progressive and severe concentric visual field constriction, two years after commencing HCQ treatment.

CONCLUSION
This case of a rapid-onset, severe panretinal degeneration shortly after start of HCQ treatment suggests underlying mechanisms and risk factors for HCQ toxicity in addition to those previously reported, and a potential need for supplementary screening tests to prevent HCQ toxicity. AAO dosing guidelines of 5 MG/KG should be strictly adhered to in patients receiving HCQ therapy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Molecular Genetics
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Ophthalmology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:1 March 2024
Deposited On:21 Sep 2023 17:36
Last Modified:26 Jun 2024 03:43
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:1935-1089
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/ICB.0000000000001393
PubMed ID:36857194
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