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Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma and Other Adverse Reactions to Vaccination in Cats


Abstract

Vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs), including feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs), occur only rarely but can be severe. Understanding potential VAAEs is an important part of informed owner consent for vaccination. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of feline medicine experts, presents the current knowledge on VAAEs in cats, summarizing the literature and filling the gaps where scientific studies are missing with expert opinion to assist veterinarians in adopting the best vaccination practice. VAAEs are caused by an aberrant innate or adaptive immune reaction, excessive local reactions at the inoculation site, an error in administration, or failure in the manufacturing process. FISS, the most severe VAAE, can develop after vaccinations or injection of other substances. Although the most widely accepted hypothesis is that chronic inflammation triggers malignant transformation, the pathogenesis of FISS is not yet fully understood. No injectable vaccine is risk-free, and therefore, vaccination should be performed as often as necessary, but as infrequently as possible. Vaccines should be brought to room temperature prior to administration and injected at sites in which FISS surgery would likely be curative; the interscapular region should be avoided. Post-vaccinal monitoring is essential.

Abstract

Vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs), including feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs), occur only rarely but can be severe. Understanding potential VAAEs is an important part of informed owner consent for vaccination. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of feline medicine experts, presents the current knowledge on VAAEs in cats, summarizing the literature and filling the gaps where scientific studies are missing with expert opinion to assist veterinarians in adopting the best vaccination practice. VAAEs are caused by an aberrant innate or adaptive immune reaction, excessive local reactions at the inoculation site, an error in administration, or failure in the manufacturing process. FISS, the most severe VAAE, can develop after vaccinations or injection of other substances. Although the most widely accepted hypothesis is that chronic inflammation triggers malignant transformation, the pathogenesis of FISS is not yet fully understood. No injectable vaccine is risk-free, and therefore, vaccination should be performed as often as necessary, but as infrequently as possible. Vaccines should be brought to room temperature prior to administration and injected at sites in which FISS surgery would likely be curative; the interscapular region should be avoided. Post-vaccinal monitoring is essential.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Life Sciences > Virology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Virology, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:8 August 2023
Deposited On:10 Oct 2023 15:28
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:39
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v15081708
PubMed ID:37632050
Project Information:
  • : FunderBoehringer Ingelheim
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  • : FunderVirbac
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  • : FunderMSD
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  • : FunderIDEXX
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  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)