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The fragile X syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome). Clinical and cytogenetic findings in 16 prepubertal boys and in 4 of their 5 families


Schinzel, Albert; Largo, Remo H (1985). The fragile X syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome). Clinical and cytogenetic findings in 16 prepubertal boys and in 4 of their 5 families. Helvetica Paediatrica Acta, 40(2-3):133-152.

Abstract

Clinical and cytogenetic findings from 16 prepubertal males with the fragile X syndrome (X-linked mental retardation with postpubertal macro-orchidism and fragile site at Xq27/8, or Martin-Bell syndrome) and from their families are reported. During the first postnatal years, protruding, large ears, full periorbital tissue, and thick septum and alae nasi were the most characteristic phenotypic findings, while after approximately 6 years of age a longish face with full lips and prominent maxilla and mandible became more distinct. It was estimated that a clinical suspicion of the fragile X syndrome could be made in most of the 16 boys from phenotypic findings in combination with the characteristic developmental profile described in our previous paper. The marker X chromosome was demonstrated in each of the 16 patients; the incidence of fra(X)-positive cells did not correlate with either age or the degree of mental retardation. 13 boys stemmed from 2 families, the other 3 were sporadic cases. In one family with 11 affected boys, the gene was transmitted by 4 brothers, grandfathers to the probands, who were intellectually normal; three of them did not show the clinical picture of the fragile X syndrome and did not express the marker. All mentally subnormal heterozygote females and one half of daughters of heterozygotes revealed the marker, but this was present only in a minority of non-retarded adult heterozygotes. In contrast to the overall incidence of about 1/4 to 1/3 mentally retarded heterozygotes, all 15 daughters of the four normal obligatory hemizygous brothers were of normal intelligence.

Abstract

Clinical and cytogenetic findings from 16 prepubertal males with the fragile X syndrome (X-linked mental retardation with postpubertal macro-orchidism and fragile site at Xq27/8, or Martin-Bell syndrome) and from their families are reported. During the first postnatal years, protruding, large ears, full periorbital tissue, and thick septum and alae nasi were the most characteristic phenotypic findings, while after approximately 6 years of age a longish face with full lips and prominent maxilla and mandible became more distinct. It was estimated that a clinical suspicion of the fragile X syndrome could be made in most of the 16 boys from phenotypic findings in combination with the characteristic developmental profile described in our previous paper. The marker X chromosome was demonstrated in each of the 16 patients; the incidence of fra(X)-positive cells did not correlate with either age or the degree of mental retardation. 13 boys stemmed from 2 families, the other 3 were sporadic cases. In one family with 11 affected boys, the gene was transmitted by 4 brothers, grandfathers to the probands, who were intellectually normal; three of them did not show the clinical picture of the fragile X syndrome and did not express the marker. All mentally subnormal heterozygote females and one half of daughters of heterozygotes revealed the marker, but this was present only in a minority of non-retarded adult heterozygotes. In contrast to the overall incidence of about 1/4 to 1/3 mentally retarded heterozygotes, all 15 daughters of the four normal obligatory hemizygous brothers were of normal intelligence.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics, Genetics (clinical)
Language:English
Date:July 1985
Deposited On:24 Oct 2023 15:56
Last Modified:29 Apr 2024 01:40
Publisher:Schwabe
ISSN:0018-022X
OA Status:Closed
PubMed ID:3843245
Other Identification Number:Corpus ID: 8626771