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A Combined Approach for Detection of Ovine Small Ruminant Retrovirus Co-Infections


Rosato, Giuliana; Abril, Carlos; Hilbe, Monika; Seehusen, Frauke (2023). A Combined Approach for Detection of Ovine Small Ruminant Retrovirus Co-Infections. Viruses, 15(2):376.

Abstract

Jaagsiekte retrovirus (JSRV)-induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is an important ovine respiratory disease in Switzerland. Furthermore, ovine lungs with OPA frequently exhibited lesions suggestive of maedi-visna virus (MVV) or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection, indicating that co-morbidities might occur. Lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes were sampled from suspected OPA cases, inflammatory lung lesions and control lungs (total of 110 cases). Tissues were (a) processed for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and (b) underwent DNA extraction and real-time PCR for JSRV, MVV and CAEV. Peptide sequences were used to generate virus-specific customized polyclonal antibodies. PCR-positive OPA cases and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded MVV- and CAEV-infected synovial cell pellets served as positive controls. Fifty-two lungs were histologically diagnosed with OPA. Histological evidence of MVV/CAEV infection was detected in 25 lungs. JSRV was detected by PCR in 84% of the suspected OPA cases; six were co-infected with MVV and one with CAEV. MVV was detected by PCR in 14 cases, and four lungs were positive for CAEV. Three lungs had MVV/CAEV co-infection. In IHC, JSRV was detected in 91% of the PCR-positive cases, whereas MVV and CAEV immunoreactivity was seen in all PCR-positive lungs. Although PCR showed a higher sensitivity compared to IHC, the combined approach allows for investigations on viral cell tropism and pathogenic processes in co-morbidities, including their potential interdependency. Furthermore, an immunohistochemical tool for specific differentiation of MVV and/or CAEV infection was implemented.

Abstract

Jaagsiekte retrovirus (JSRV)-induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is an important ovine respiratory disease in Switzerland. Furthermore, ovine lungs with OPA frequently exhibited lesions suggestive of maedi-visna virus (MVV) or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection, indicating that co-morbidities might occur. Lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes were sampled from suspected OPA cases, inflammatory lung lesions and control lungs (total of 110 cases). Tissues were (a) processed for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and (b) underwent DNA extraction and real-time PCR for JSRV, MVV and CAEV. Peptide sequences were used to generate virus-specific customized polyclonal antibodies. PCR-positive OPA cases and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded MVV- and CAEV-infected synovial cell pellets served as positive controls. Fifty-two lungs were histologically diagnosed with OPA. Histological evidence of MVV/CAEV infection was detected in 25 lungs. JSRV was detected by PCR in 84% of the suspected OPA cases; six were co-infected with MVV and one with CAEV. MVV was detected by PCR in 14 cases, and four lungs were positive for CAEV. Three lungs had MVV/CAEV co-infection. In IHC, JSRV was detected in 91% of the PCR-positive cases, whereas MVV and CAEV immunoreactivity was seen in all PCR-positive lungs. Although PCR showed a higher sensitivity compared to IHC, the combined approach allows for investigations on viral cell tropism and pathogenic processes in co-morbidities, including their potential interdependency. Furthermore, an immunohistochemical tool for specific differentiation of MVV and/or CAEV infection was implemented.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Life Sciences > Virology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Virology, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:28 January 2023
Deposited On:22 Nov 2023 09:18
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:39
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v15020376
PubMed ID:36851589
Other Identification Number:PMCID: PMC9958757
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)