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Leukocyte Count and Coronary Artery Disease Events in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Longitudinal Study


Abstract

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PWH) have increased cardiovascular risk. Higher leukocyte count has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) events in the general population. It is unknown whether the leukocyte-CAD association also applies to PWH.

METHODS: In a case-control study nested within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we obtained uni- and multivariable odds ratios (OR) for CAD events, based on traditional and HIV-related CAD risk factors, leukocyte count, and confounders previously associated with leukocyte count.

RESULTS: We included 536 cases with a first CAD event (2000-2021; median age, 56 years; 87% male; 84% with suppressed HIV RNA) and 1464 event-free controls. Cases had higher latest leukocyte count before CAD event than controls (median [interquartile range], 6495 [5300-7995] vs 5900 [4910-7200]; P < .01), but leukocytosis (>11 000/µL) was uncommon (4.3% vs 2.1%; P = .01). In the highest versus lowest leukocyte quintile at latest time point before CAD event, participants had univariable CAD-OR = 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.63-3.15) and multivariable adjusted CAD-OR = 1.59 (1.09-2.30). For comparison, univariable CAD-OR for dyslipidemia, diabetes, and recent abacavir exposure were 1.58 (1.29-1.93), 2.19 (1.59-3.03), and 1.73 (1.37-2.17), respectively. Smoking and, to a lesser degree, alcohol and ethnicity attenuated the leukocyte-CAD association. Leukocytes measured up to 8 years before the event were significantly associated with CAD events.

CONCLUSIONS: PWH in Switzerland with higher leukocyte counts have an independently increased risk of CAD events, to a degree similar to traditional and HIV-related risk factors.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PWH) have increased cardiovascular risk. Higher leukocyte count has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) events in the general population. It is unknown whether the leukocyte-CAD association also applies to PWH.

METHODS: In a case-control study nested within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we obtained uni- and multivariable odds ratios (OR) for CAD events, based on traditional and HIV-related CAD risk factors, leukocyte count, and confounders previously associated with leukocyte count.

RESULTS: We included 536 cases with a first CAD event (2000-2021; median age, 56 years; 87% male; 84% with suppressed HIV RNA) and 1464 event-free controls. Cases had higher latest leukocyte count before CAD event than controls (median [interquartile range], 6495 [5300-7995] vs 5900 [4910-7200]; P < .01), but leukocytosis (>11 000/µL) was uncommon (4.3% vs 2.1%; P = .01). In the highest versus lowest leukocyte quintile at latest time point before CAD event, participants had univariable CAD-OR = 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.63-3.15) and multivariable adjusted CAD-OR = 1.59 (1.09-2.30). For comparison, univariable CAD-OR for dyslipidemia, diabetes, and recent abacavir exposure were 1.58 (1.29-1.93), 2.19 (1.59-3.03), and 1.73 (1.37-2.17), respectively. Smoking and, to a lesser degree, alcohol and ethnicity attenuated the leukocyte-CAD association. Leukocytes measured up to 8 years before the event were significantly associated with CAD events.

CONCLUSIONS: PWH in Switzerland with higher leukocyte counts have an independently increased risk of CAD events, to a degree similar to traditional and HIV-related risk factors.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:HIV infection; coronary artery disease; leukocytes; multivariable analysis; white blood cells
Language:English
Date:8 June 2023
Deposited On:06 Nov 2023 12:33
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:39
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1058-4838
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad033
PubMed ID:36688465
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)