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Diagnostic approaches, aetiological agents and their associations with short-term survival and laminitis in horses with acute diarrhoea admitted to referral institutions


Gomez, Diego E; Arroyo, Luis G; Schoster, Angelika; Renaud, David L; Kopper, Jamie J; Dunkel, Bettina; Byrne, David; Toribio, Ramiro E (2023). Diagnostic approaches, aetiological agents and their associations with short-term survival and laminitis in horses with acute diarrhoea admitted to referral institutions. Equine Veterinary Journal:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: An international description of the diagnostic approaches used in different institutions to diagnose acute equine diarrhoea and the pathogens detected is lacking.
Objectives: To describe the diagnostic approach, aetiological agents, outcome, and development of laminitis for diarrhoeic horses worldwide.
Study design: Multicentre retrospective case series.
Methods: Information from horses with acute diarrhoea presenting to participating institutions between 2016 and 2020, including diagnostic approaches, pathogens detected and their associations with outcomes, were compared between institutions or geographic regions.
Results: One thousand four hundred and thirty‐eight horses from 26 participating institutions from 4 continents were included. Overall, aetiological testing was limited (44% for Salmonella spp., 42% for Neorickettsia risticii [only North America], 40% for Clostridiodes difficile, and 29% for ECoV); however, 13% (81/633) of horses tested positive for Salmonella, 13% (35/262) for N. risticii, 9% (37/422) for ECoV, and 5% (27/578) for C. difficile. C. difficile positive cases had greater odds of non‐survival than horses negative for C. difficile (OR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.23–5.91). In addition, horses that were positive for N. risticii had greater odds of developing laminitis than negative horses (OR: 2.76, 95%CI: 1.12–6.81; p = 0.029).
Main limitations: Due to the study's retrospective nature, there are missing data.
Conclusions: This study highlighted limited diagnostic investigations in cases of acute equine diarrhoea. Detection rates of pathogens are similar to previous reports. Non‐survival and development of laminitis are related to certain detected pathogens.

Abstract

Background: An international description of the diagnostic approaches used in different institutions to diagnose acute equine diarrhoea and the pathogens detected is lacking.
Objectives: To describe the diagnostic approach, aetiological agents, outcome, and development of laminitis for diarrhoeic horses worldwide.
Study design: Multicentre retrospective case series.
Methods: Information from horses with acute diarrhoea presenting to participating institutions between 2016 and 2020, including diagnostic approaches, pathogens detected and their associations with outcomes, were compared between institutions or geographic regions.
Results: One thousand four hundred and thirty‐eight horses from 26 participating institutions from 4 continents were included. Overall, aetiological testing was limited (44% for Salmonella spp., 42% for Neorickettsia risticii [only North America], 40% for Clostridiodes difficile, and 29% for ECoV); however, 13% (81/633) of horses tested positive for Salmonella, 13% (35/262) for N. risticii, 9% (37/422) for ECoV, and 5% (27/578) for C. difficile. C. difficile positive cases had greater odds of non‐survival than horses negative for C. difficile (OR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.23–5.91). In addition, horses that were positive for N. risticii had greater odds of developing laminitis than negative horses (OR: 2.76, 95%CI: 1.12–6.81; p = 0.029).
Main limitations: Due to the study's retrospective nature, there are missing data.
Conclusions: This study highlighted limited diagnostic investigations in cases of acute equine diarrhoea. Detection rates of pathogens are similar to previous reports. Non‐survival and development of laminitis are related to certain detected pathogens.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Equine
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Medicine
Language:English
Date:20 November 2023
Deposited On:13 Dec 2023 12:46
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:40
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0425-1644
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.14024
PubMed ID:37984355
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)