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Monocyte, Lymphocyte and Neutrophil Ratios – Easy-to-Use Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis


Kissling, Mirjam; Fritschi, Nora; Baumann, Philipp; Buettcher, Michael; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Naranbhai, Vivek; Ritz, Nicole (2023). Monocyte, Lymphocyte and Neutrophil Ratios – Easy-to-Use Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 42(6):520-527.

Abstract

Background:
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-monocyte-plus-lymphocyte-ratio (NMLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio (MLR) may have diagnostic potential for tuberculosis (TB).

Methods:
Data of two prospective multicenter studies in Switzerland were used, which included children <18 years with TB exposure, infection or disease or with febrile non-TB lower-respiratory-tract infection (nTB-LRTI).

Results:
Of the 389 children included 25 (6.4%) had TB disease, 12 (3.1%) TB infection, 28 (7.2%) were healthy TB exposed and 324 (83.3%) nTB-LRTI. Median (IQR) NLR was highest with 2.0 (1.2, 2.2) in children with TB disease compared to TB exposed [0.8 (0.6, 1.3); P = 0.002] and nTB-LRTI [0.3 (0.1, 1.0); P < 0.001]. Median (IQR) NMLR was highest with 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) in children with TB disease compared to healthy exposed [0.7 (0.6, 1.1); P = 0.003] and children with nTB-LRTI [0.2 (0.1, 0.6); P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves to detect TB disease compared to nTB-LRTI for NLR and NMLR had an area under the curve of 0.82 and 0.86, the sensitivity of 88% and 88%, and specificity of 71% and 76%, respectively.

Conclusion:
NLR and NMLR are promising, easy-to-obtain diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate children with TB disease from other lower respiratory tract infections. These results require validation in a larger study and in settings with high and low TB endemicity.

Abstract

Background:
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-monocyte-plus-lymphocyte-ratio (NMLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio (MLR) may have diagnostic potential for tuberculosis (TB).

Methods:
Data of two prospective multicenter studies in Switzerland were used, which included children <18 years with TB exposure, infection or disease or with febrile non-TB lower-respiratory-tract infection (nTB-LRTI).

Results:
Of the 389 children included 25 (6.4%) had TB disease, 12 (3.1%) TB infection, 28 (7.2%) were healthy TB exposed and 324 (83.3%) nTB-LRTI. Median (IQR) NLR was highest with 2.0 (1.2, 2.2) in children with TB disease compared to TB exposed [0.8 (0.6, 1.3); P = 0.002] and nTB-LRTI [0.3 (0.1, 1.0); P < 0.001]. Median (IQR) NMLR was highest with 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) in children with TB disease compared to healthy exposed [0.7 (0.6, 1.1); P = 0.003] and children with nTB-LRTI [0.2 (0.1, 0.6); P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves to detect TB disease compared to nTB-LRTI for NLR and NMLR had an area under the curve of 0.82 and 0.86, the sensitivity of 88% and 88%, and specificity of 71% and 76%, respectively.

Conclusion:
NLR and NMLR are promising, easy-to-obtain diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate children with TB disease from other lower respiratory tract infections. These results require validation in a larger study and in settings with high and low TB endemicity.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Infectious Diseases, Microbiology (medical), Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Language:English
Date:June 2023
Deposited On:01 Dec 2023 11:07
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 03:42
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0891-3668
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000003901
PubMed ID:36977187
Other Identification Number:PMCID: PMC10187619
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)