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Serum and Urinary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Concentrations in Dehydrated Horses


van Spijk, Julia N; Lo, Hsiao-Chien; Merle, Roswitha; Richter, Ina-Gabriele; Diemar, Anne; Stoeckle, Sabita D; Gehlen, Heidrun (2023). Serum and Urinary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Concentrations in Dehydrated Horses. Animals, 13(24):3776.

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in renal tissue in human kidney disease, but its role as a biomarker for kidney disease has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum MMP-9 (sMMP-9) and urinary MMP-9 (uMMP-9) concentrations in dehydrated horses. Dehydrated horses were prospectively included. Blood and urinary samples were taken at admission, and after 12, 24, and 48 h (t0, t12, t24, t48), an anti-equine MMP-9 sandwich ELISA was used. Four healthy horses served as the controls. Serum creatinine, urea, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), urine-specific gravity, urinary protein concentration, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary gamma–glutamyl transferase/creatinine ratio (uGGT/Cr) were measured. Statistical analysis included a repeated measures ANOVA and mixed linear regression model. Overall, 40 dehydrated horses were included (mild dehydration 13/40, moderate 16/40, severe 11/40). Acute kidney injury was found in 1/40 horses; 7/40 horses showed elevated serum creatinine, 11/40 horses elevated serum SDMA, and 5/28 elevated uGGT/Cr at presentation. In dehydrated horses, sMMP-9 concentrations were significantly higher on t0 (median: 589 ng/mL, range: 172–3597 ng/mL) compared to t12 (340 ng/mL, 132–1213 ng/mL), t24 (308 ng/mL, 162–1048 ng/mL), and t48 (258 ng/mL, 130–744 ng/mL). In healthy horses, sMMP-9 (239 ng/mL, 142–508 ng/mL) showed no differences over time or compared to patients. uMMP-9 and uMMP-9/creatinine did not differ over time or to the controls. No differences were found between dehydration groups. Urinary casts (p = 0.001; estimate = 135) and uGGT/Cr (p = 0.03; estimate = 6.5) correlated with sMMP-9. Serum urea was associated with uMMP-9/Cr (p = 0.01, estimate 0.9). In conclusion, sMMP-9 was elevated at arrival in dehydrated patients compared to later measurements. Correlations to uGGT/Cr and urinary casts need further evaluation.

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in renal tissue in human kidney disease, but its role as a biomarker for kidney disease has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum MMP-9 (sMMP-9) and urinary MMP-9 (uMMP-9) concentrations in dehydrated horses. Dehydrated horses were prospectively included. Blood and urinary samples were taken at admission, and after 12, 24, and 48 h (t0, t12, t24, t48), an anti-equine MMP-9 sandwich ELISA was used. Four healthy horses served as the controls. Serum creatinine, urea, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), urine-specific gravity, urinary protein concentration, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary gamma–glutamyl transferase/creatinine ratio (uGGT/Cr) were measured. Statistical analysis included a repeated measures ANOVA and mixed linear regression model. Overall, 40 dehydrated horses were included (mild dehydration 13/40, moderate 16/40, severe 11/40). Acute kidney injury was found in 1/40 horses; 7/40 horses showed elevated serum creatinine, 11/40 horses elevated serum SDMA, and 5/28 elevated uGGT/Cr at presentation. In dehydrated horses, sMMP-9 concentrations were significantly higher on t0 (median: 589 ng/mL, range: 172–3597 ng/mL) compared to t12 (340 ng/mL, 132–1213 ng/mL), t24 (308 ng/mL, 162–1048 ng/mL), and t48 (258 ng/mL, 130–744 ng/mL). In healthy horses, sMMP-9 (239 ng/mL, 142–508 ng/mL) showed no differences over time or compared to patients. uMMP-9 and uMMP-9/creatinine did not differ over time or to the controls. No differences were found between dehydration groups. Urinary casts (p = 0.001; estimate = 135) and uGGT/Cr (p = 0.03; estimate = 6.5) correlated with sMMP-9. Serum urea was associated with uMMP-9/Cr (p = 0.01, estimate 0.9). In conclusion, sMMP-9 was elevated at arrival in dehydrated patients compared to later measurements. Correlations to uGGT/Cr and urinary casts need further evaluation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:630 Agriculture
570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Veterinary, Animal Science and Zoology
Language:English
Date:7 December 2023
Deposited On:20 Dec 2023 12:55
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2076-2615
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243776
Project Information:
  • : FunderOpen Access Publication Fund of the Freie Universität Berlin
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)