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Exudative glomerulonephritis associated with acute leptospirosis in dogs


Hilbe, Monika; Posthaus, Horst; Paternoster, Giulia; Schuller, Simone; Imlau, Michelle; Jahns, Hanne (2024). Exudative glomerulonephritis associated with acute leptospirosis in dogs. Veterinary Pathology, 61(3):453-461.

Abstract

In the past 20 years in Switzerland, dogs with suspect acute leptospirosis frequently showed severe glomerular changes that had not been previously reported. These features were characterized by abundant extravasated erythrocytes and fewer neutrophils accompanied by marked fibrin exudation into the urinary space that was interpreted as an exudative glomerulonephritis (GN). This retrospective study describes this significant glomerular pathological change and investigates the association with leptospirosis. Tissues from 50 dogs with exudative GN, retrieved from 2 pathology archives in Switzerland were reviewed using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, and Warthin and Starry stains. Clinical and postmortem data were collected for each case. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or polymerase chain reactions were used as confirmatory tests for leptospirosis. While all 50 cases had clinical and pathological features supporting a diagnosis of leptospirosis, 37 cases were confirmed for the disease. Using a LipL32 antibody in addition to the OMV2177 antibody raised against the lipopolysaccharide of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni increased the detection rate of Leptospira by IHC in exudative GN from 24% to 62%. Signalment, seasonality, clinical signs, blood results, and pathological changes in dogs with exudative GN were similar to those reported for dogs without GN and confirmed infection by Leptospira spp.. Exudative GN was common among Swiss dogs with leptospirosis where it caused acute severe disease. Leptospirosis should be considered as a cause of this new pathologic feature by the pathologist. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but involvement of a geographic-specific serovar with unique virulence factors is suspected and warrants further investigation.

Abstract

In the past 20 years in Switzerland, dogs with suspect acute leptospirosis frequently showed severe glomerular changes that had not been previously reported. These features were characterized by abundant extravasated erythrocytes and fewer neutrophils accompanied by marked fibrin exudation into the urinary space that was interpreted as an exudative glomerulonephritis (GN). This retrospective study describes this significant glomerular pathological change and investigates the association with leptospirosis. Tissues from 50 dogs with exudative GN, retrieved from 2 pathology archives in Switzerland were reviewed using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, and Warthin and Starry stains. Clinical and postmortem data were collected for each case. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or polymerase chain reactions were used as confirmatory tests for leptospirosis. While all 50 cases had clinical and pathological features supporting a diagnosis of leptospirosis, 37 cases were confirmed for the disease. Using a LipL32 antibody in addition to the OMV2177 antibody raised against the lipopolysaccharide of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni increased the detection rate of Leptospira by IHC in exudative GN from 24% to 62%. Signalment, seasonality, clinical signs, blood results, and pathological changes in dogs with exudative GN were similar to those reported for dogs without GN and confirmed infection by Leptospira spp.. Exudative GN was common among Swiss dogs with leptospirosis where it caused acute severe disease. Leptospirosis should be considered as a cause of this new pathologic feature by the pathologist. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but involvement of a geographic-specific serovar with unique virulence factors is suspected and warrants further investigation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Veterinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Veterinary
Language:English
Date:1 May 2024
Deposited On:22 Dec 2023 08:24
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Sage Publications
ISSN:0300-9858
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/03009858231207020
PubMed ID:37899628
  • Content: Accepted Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)