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Evaluation of HPK $n⁺−p$ planar pixel sensors for the CMS Phase-2 upgrade


The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration; et al; Canelli, Florencia; Kilminster, Ben; Macchiolo, Anna; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Robmann, Peter; Caminada, Lea (2023). Evaluation of HPK $n⁺−p$ planar pixel sensors for the CMS Phase-2 upgrade. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 1053:168326.

Abstract

o cope with the challenging environment of the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), scheduled to start operation in 2029, CMS will replace its entire tracking system. The requirements for the tracker are largely determined by the long operation time of 10 years with an instantaneous peak luminosity of up to 7.5 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ in the ultimate performance scenario. Depending on the radial distance from the interaction point, the silicon sensors will receive a particle fluence corresponding to a non-ionising energy loss of up to $\Phi_{eq}$ 3.5 x 10$^{16}$ cm$^{−2}$. This paper focuses on planar pixel sensor design and qualification up to a fluence of $\Phi_{eq}$ = 1.4 x 10$^{16}$ cm$^{−2}$.
For the development of appropriate planar pixel sensors an R&D program was initiated, which includes $n⁺−p$ sensors on 150 mm (6”) wafers with an active thickness of 150 µm with pixel sizes of 100 x 25 µm$^{2}$ and 50 x 50 µm$^{2}$ manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). Single chip modules with ROC4Sens and RD53A readout chips were made. Irradiation with protons and neutrons, as well was an extensive test beam campaign at DESY were carried out. This paper presents the investigation of various assemblies mainly with ROC4Sens readout chips. It demonstrates that multiple designs fulfil the requirements in terms of breakdown voltage, leakage current and efficiency. The single point resolution for 50 x 50 µm$^{2}$ pixels is measured as 4.0 µm for non-irradiated samples, and 6.3 µm after irradiation to $\Phi_{eq}$ = 7.2 x 10$^{15}$ cm$^{−2}$.

Abstract

o cope with the challenging environment of the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), scheduled to start operation in 2029, CMS will replace its entire tracking system. The requirements for the tracker are largely determined by the long operation time of 10 years with an instantaneous peak luminosity of up to 7.5 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ in the ultimate performance scenario. Depending on the radial distance from the interaction point, the silicon sensors will receive a particle fluence corresponding to a non-ionising energy loss of up to $\Phi_{eq}$ 3.5 x 10$^{16}$ cm$^{−2}$. This paper focuses on planar pixel sensor design and qualification up to a fluence of $\Phi_{eq}$ = 1.4 x 10$^{16}$ cm$^{−2}$.
For the development of appropriate planar pixel sensors an R&D program was initiated, which includes $n⁺−p$ sensors on 150 mm (6”) wafers with an active thickness of 150 µm with pixel sizes of 100 x 25 µm$^{2}$ and 50 x 50 µm$^{2}$ manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). Single chip modules with ROC4Sens and RD53A readout chips were made. Irradiation with protons and neutrons, as well was an extensive test beam campaign at DESY were carried out. This paper presents the investigation of various assemblies mainly with ROC4Sens readout chips. It demonstrates that multiple designs fulfil the requirements in terms of breakdown voltage, leakage current and efficiency. The single point resolution for 50 x 50 µm$^{2}$ pixels is measured as 4.0 µm for non-irradiated samples, and 6.3 µm after irradiation to $\Phi_{eq}$ = 7.2 x 10$^{15}$ cm$^{−2}$.

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Additional indexing

Other titles:Evaluation of HPK n+-p planar pixel sensors for the CMS Phase-2 upgrade
Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Nuclear and High Energy Physics
Physical Sciences > Instrumentation
Uncontrolled Keywords:Instrumentation, Nuclear and High Energy Physics
Language:English
Date:1 August 2023
Deposited On:22 Dec 2023 12:08
Last Modified:29 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0168-9002
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2023.168326