Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 bind differentially to different class 3 semaphorins and are thought to provide the ligand-binding moieties in receptor complexes mediating repulsive responses to these semaphorins. Here, we have studied the function of neuropilin-2 through analysis of a neuropilin-2 mutant mouse, which is viable and fertile. Repulsive responses of sympathetic and hippocampal neurons to Sema3F but not to Sema3A are abolished in the mutant. Marked defects are observed in the development of several cranial nerves, in the initial central projections of spinal sensory axons, and in the anterior commissure, habenulo-interpeduncular tract, and the projections of hippocampal mossyfiber axons in the infrapyramidal bundle. Our results show that neuropilin-2 is an essential component of the Sema3F receptor and identify key roles for neuropilin-2 in axon guidance in the PNS and CNS.