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A DARPin promotes faster onset of botulinum neurotoxin A1 action


Leka, Oneda; Wu, Yufan; Zanetti, Giulia; Furler, Sven; Reinberg, Thomas; Marinho, Joana; Schaefer, Jonas V; Plückthun, Andreas; Li, Xiaodan; Pirazzini, Marco; Kammerer, Richard A (2023). A DARPin promotes faster onset of botulinum neurotoxin A1 action. Nature Communications, 14(1):8317.

Abstract

In this study, we characterize Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins) as investigative tools to probe botulinum neurotoxin A1 (BoNT/A1) structure and function. We identify DARPin-F5 that completely blocks SNAP25 substrate cleavage by BoNT/A1 in vitro. X-ray crystallography reveals that DARPin-F5 inhibits BoNT/A1 activity by interacting with a substrate-binding region between the α- and β-exosite. This DARPin does not block substrate cleavage of BoNT/A3, indicating that DARPin-F5 is a subtype-specific inhibitor. BoNT/A1 Glu-171 plays a critical role in the interaction with DARPin-F5 and its mutation to Asp, the residue found in BoNT/A3, results in a loss of inhibition of substrate cleavage. In contrast to the in vitro results, DARPin-F5 promotes faster substrate cleavage of BoNT/A1 in primary neurons and muscle tissue by increasing toxin translocation. Our findings could have important implications for the application of BoNT/A1 in therapeutic areas requiring faster onset of toxin action combined with long persistence.

Abstract

In this study, we characterize Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins) as investigative tools to probe botulinum neurotoxin A1 (BoNT/A1) structure and function. We identify DARPin-F5 that completely blocks SNAP25 substrate cleavage by BoNT/A1 in vitro. X-ray crystallography reveals that DARPin-F5 inhibits BoNT/A1 activity by interacting with a substrate-binding region between the α- and β-exosite. This DARPin does not block substrate cleavage of BoNT/A3, indicating that DARPin-F5 is a subtype-specific inhibitor. BoNT/A1 Glu-171 plays a critical role in the interaction with DARPin-F5 and its mutation to Asp, the residue found in BoNT/A3, results in a loss of inhibition of substrate cleavage. In contrast to the in vitro results, DARPin-F5 promotes faster substrate cleavage of BoNT/A1 in primary neurons and muscle tissue by increasing toxin translocation. Our findings could have important implications for the application of BoNT/A1 in therapeutic areas requiring faster onset of toxin action combined with long persistence.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > General Chemistry
Life Sciences > General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Physical Sciences > General Physics and Astronomy
Language:English
Date:18 December 2023
Deposited On:05 Jan 2024 12:32
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:36
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2041-1723
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-44102-4
PubMed ID:38110403
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)