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Low-energy calibration of XENON1T with an internal ${}^{37}$Ar source


Abstract

A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal $^{37}$Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be ($32.3\,\pm \,0.3$) photons/keV and ($$40.6\,\pm \,0.5$$) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is ($68.0^{+6.3}_{-3.7}$) electrons/keV. The ${}^{37}$Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at ($2.83\,\pm \,0.02$) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that ${}^{37}$Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors.

Abstract

A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal $^{37}$Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be ($32.3\,\pm \,0.3$) photons/keV and ($$40.6\,\pm \,0.5$$) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is ($68.0^{+6.3}_{-3.7}$) electrons/keV. The ${}^{37}$Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at ($2.83\,\pm \,0.02$) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that ${}^{37}$Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Engineering (miscellaneous)
Physical Sciences > Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous), Engineering (miscellaneous)
Language:English
Date:27 June 2023
Deposited On:05 Jan 2024 12:35
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:36
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1434-6044
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11512-z
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)