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Cerebral perfusion differences are linked to executive function performance in very preterm-born children and adolescents


Hijman, Anna-Isabella S; Wehrle, Flavia M; Latal, Beatrice; Hagmann, Cornelia F; O'Gorman, Ruth L (2024). Cerebral perfusion differences are linked to executive function performance in very preterm-born children and adolescents. NeuroImage, 285:120500.

Abstract

Background: Previous findings from the Swissped RECOVERY trial showed that patients with Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) who were randomly assigned to intravenous immunoglobulins or methylprednisolone have a comparable length of hospital stay. Here, we report the 6-month follow-up outcomes of cardiac pathologies and normalisation of clinical or laboratory signs of inflammation from this study population.

Methods: This pre-planned follow-up of patients with PIMS-TS included the Swissped RECOVERY Trial reports on the 6-month outcomes of the cohort after randomisation, with a focus on cardiac, haematological, and biochemical findings. The trial was an investigator-initiated randomised multicentre open-label two-arm trial in children and adolescents hospitalised with PIMS-TS at ten hospitals in Switzerland. Cardiological assessments and laboratory analyses were prospectively collected in the intention-to-treat analysis on pre-defined intervals after hospital discharge. Differences between randomised arms were investigated using Chi-square test for categorical and Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. The trial is registered with the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04826588).

Findings: Between May 21, 2021 and April 15, 2022, 75 patients with a median age of 9.1 years (IQR 6.2-12.2) were included in the intention-to-treat population (37 in the methylprednisolone group and 38 in the intravenous immunoglobulin group). During follow-up, the incidence of abnormal left ventricular systolic function, coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), and other signs of inflammation were comparable in both groups. However, we detected cardiac abnormalities with low incidence and a mild degree grade of pathology. CAAs were observed in 2/38 children (5.3%) in the IVIG group and 1/37 children (2.7%) in the methylprednisolone group at 6-month follow-up (difference proportion 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 1.0; p = 0.39).

Interpretation: Methylprednisolone alone may be an acceptable first-line treatment as left ventricular systolic dysfunction and clinical/laboratory evidence for inflammation quickly resolved in all children. However, our findings need further confirmation through larger studies as our sample size is likely to be of insufficient power to address rare clinically relevant adverse outcomes.

Funding: NOMIS, Vontobel, and Gaydoul Foundation.

Abstract

Background: Previous findings from the Swissped RECOVERY trial showed that patients with Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) who were randomly assigned to intravenous immunoglobulins or methylprednisolone have a comparable length of hospital stay. Here, we report the 6-month follow-up outcomes of cardiac pathologies and normalisation of clinical or laboratory signs of inflammation from this study population.

Methods: This pre-planned follow-up of patients with PIMS-TS included the Swissped RECOVERY Trial reports on the 6-month outcomes of the cohort after randomisation, with a focus on cardiac, haematological, and biochemical findings. The trial was an investigator-initiated randomised multicentre open-label two-arm trial in children and adolescents hospitalised with PIMS-TS at ten hospitals in Switzerland. Cardiological assessments and laboratory analyses were prospectively collected in the intention-to-treat analysis on pre-defined intervals after hospital discharge. Differences between randomised arms were investigated using Chi-square test for categorical and Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. The trial is registered with the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04826588).

Findings: Between May 21, 2021 and April 15, 2022, 75 patients with a median age of 9.1 years (IQR 6.2-12.2) were included in the intention-to-treat population (37 in the methylprednisolone group and 38 in the intravenous immunoglobulin group). During follow-up, the incidence of abnormal left ventricular systolic function, coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), and other signs of inflammation were comparable in both groups. However, we detected cardiac abnormalities with low incidence and a mild degree grade of pathology. CAAs were observed in 2/38 children (5.3%) in the IVIG group and 1/37 children (2.7%) in the methylprednisolone group at 6-month follow-up (difference proportion 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 1.0; p = 0.39).

Interpretation: Methylprednisolone alone may be an acceptable first-line treatment as left ventricular systolic dysfunction and clinical/laboratory evidence for inflammation quickly resolved in all children. However, our findings need further confirmation through larger studies as our sample size is likely to be of insufficient power to address rare clinically relevant adverse outcomes.

Funding: NOMIS, Vontobel, and Gaydoul Foundation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Neurology
Life Sciences > Cognitive Neuroscience
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cognitive Neuroscience, Neurology
Language:English
Date:January 2024
Deposited On:09 Jan 2024 06:58
Last Modified:30 Apr 2024 01:46
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1053-8119
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2023.120500
PubMed ID:38135171
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)