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Transient gravitational wave searches: machine learning application and probing neutron stars


Lopez, Dixeena. Transient gravitational wave searches: machine learning application and probing neutron stars. 2023, University of Zurich, Faculty of Science.

Abstract

Introduction 1
2 A brief introduction to gravitational waves 4
2.1 Gravitational waves from general relativity ................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Ground-based gravitational wave detectors...................................................................................................... 7
2.2.1 Network of current-generation ground-based detectors................................................................... 10
2.2.2 Third-generation ground-based detectors............................................................................................ 11
2.3 Gravitational wave sources.................................................................................................................................. 12
3 All-sky search for short gravitational-wave bursts 17
3.1 Detection of gravitational wave bursts using coherent Waveburst............................................................ 17
3.1.1 Maximum likelihood estimation............................................................................................................ 17
3.1.2 Reconstruction of gravitational wave burst parameters................................................................... 22
3.1.3 Estimation of search efficiency ............................................................................................................ 23
3.2 A brief history of the all-sky short gravitational-wave burst searches...................................................... 25
3.2.1 Gravitational-wave bursts search during third observing run......................................................... 34
4 Gravitational waves from neutron star 41
4.1 Population of neutron stars............................................................................................................................... 41
4.2 Structure of Neutron star.................................................................................................................................. 43
4.3 Qausinormal modes of neutron star................................................................................................................... 47
4.3.1 Perturbations of Neutron star............................................................................................................... 47
4.4 Isolated neutron stars......................................................................................................................................... 49
4.4.1 Glitch mechanisms.................................................................................................................................. 49
4.4.2 Observed glitch size distribution......................................................................................................... 51
4.5 Binary neutron star coalescences...................................................................................................................... 52
4.5.1 Post-merger phase of neutron star...................................................................................................... 54
4.5.2 Tidal deformability.................................................................................................................................. 55
4.5.3 Observation of binary neutron star mergers...................................................................................... 59
5 Gravitational-wave bursts search using machine learning 62
5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................ 63
5.2 Gaussian mixture model...................................................................................................................................... 63
5.3 Detection method using GMM ......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3.1 Log-Likelihood statistic......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3.2 Maximum likelihood approach ............................................................................................................ 64
5.3.3 GMM based detection statistic............................................................................................................ 65
5.4 Short duration GW burstsearch with GMM.................................................................................................... 65
5.4.1 Coherent Waveburst algorithm............................................................................................................ 66
5.4.2 Dataset...................................................................................................................................................... 66
5.4.3 Attribute choice ...................................................................................................................................... 68
5.4.4 Training models ...................................................................................................................................... 68
5.4.5 Search sensitivity improvement............................................................................................................ 69
5.4.6 Application of cWB plus GMM to the 01 data................................................................................ 70
5.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................ 72
5.6 Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................................... 73
6 Modified machine learning technique for all-sky short transient gravitational-wave searches 75
6.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 76
6.2 Methodology......................................................................................................................................................... 76
6.2.1 Coherent WaveBurst algorithm............................................................................................................. 76
6.2.2 Gaussian mixture modeling in postproduction ................................................................................ 77
6.3 03a analysis with GMM...................................................................................................................................... 78
6.3.1 The standard 03a cWB all-sky analysis............................................................................................. 78
6.3.2 GMM model generation.......................................................................................................................... 78
6.3.3 Data simulation ...................................................................................................................................... 79
6.3.4 Sensitivity improvement for generic signal morphologies................................................................ 79
6.3.5 Robustness test to CCSN...................................................................................................................... 80
6.4 Search results......................................................................................................................................................... 83
6.5 Discussions............................................................................................................................................................ 83
6.6 Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................................ 84
7 Search for gravitational-wave bursts from glitching neutron stars 89
7.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................ 91
7.2 Signal Model......................................................................................................................................................... 91
7.3 Analysis Overview................................................................................................................................................ 94
7.3.1 Search method and data.......................................................................................................................... 94
7.3.2 Injection set................................................................................................................................................ 95
7.3.3 Sensitivity to GW signals during pulsar glitches................................................................................ 97
7.3.4 Reconstruction of signal’s frequency................................................................................................... 98
7.4 Prospects for localizing glitching NSfrom GW detection............................................................................... 98
7.5 Discussion.................................................................................................................................................................. 101
7.6 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................. 102
8 Gravitational-wave memory from binary neutron star mergers 106
8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................... 107
8.2 Non-linear memory waveform................................................................................................................................107
8.3 Impact of non-linear memory on thedistinguishabilityof matter effects ...................................................... Ill
8.4 Detection prospects of post-merger memory fromstacking multiple events..................................................114
8.5 Linear memory of ejecta from binary neutronstar andblack hole-neutron star systems............................. 115
8.6 Discussions...............................................................................................................................................................118
8.7 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................. 118
8.8 APPENDIX...............................................................................................................................................................119
A from CoRe database NR waveforms..........................................................................................119
B BNS-NSBH match....................................................................................................................................... 119
C Memory from binary black hole mergers................................................................................................. 119
9 Conclusions and Outlook 123
References 127

Abstract

Introduction 1
2 A brief introduction to gravitational waves 4
2.1 Gravitational waves from general relativity ................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Ground-based gravitational wave detectors...................................................................................................... 7
2.2.1 Network of current-generation ground-based detectors................................................................... 10
2.2.2 Third-generation ground-based detectors............................................................................................ 11
2.3 Gravitational wave sources.................................................................................................................................. 12
3 All-sky search for short gravitational-wave bursts 17
3.1 Detection of gravitational wave bursts using coherent Waveburst............................................................ 17
3.1.1 Maximum likelihood estimation............................................................................................................ 17
3.1.2 Reconstruction of gravitational wave burst parameters................................................................... 22
3.1.3 Estimation of search efficiency ............................................................................................................ 23
3.2 A brief history of the all-sky short gravitational-wave burst searches...................................................... 25
3.2.1 Gravitational-wave bursts search during third observing run......................................................... 34
4 Gravitational waves from neutron star 41
4.1 Population of neutron stars............................................................................................................................... 41
4.2 Structure of Neutron star.................................................................................................................................. 43
4.3 Qausinormal modes of neutron star................................................................................................................... 47
4.3.1 Perturbations of Neutron star............................................................................................................... 47
4.4 Isolated neutron stars......................................................................................................................................... 49
4.4.1 Glitch mechanisms.................................................................................................................................. 49
4.4.2 Observed glitch size distribution......................................................................................................... 51
4.5 Binary neutron star coalescences...................................................................................................................... 52
4.5.1 Post-merger phase of neutron star...................................................................................................... 54
4.5.2 Tidal deformability.................................................................................................................................. 55
4.5.3 Observation of binary neutron star mergers...................................................................................... 59
5 Gravitational-wave bursts search using machine learning 62
5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................ 63
5.2 Gaussian mixture model...................................................................................................................................... 63
5.3 Detection method using GMM ......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3.1 Log-Likelihood statistic......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3.2 Maximum likelihood approach ............................................................................................................ 64
5.3.3 GMM based detection statistic............................................................................................................ 65
5.4 Short duration GW burstsearch with GMM.................................................................................................... 65
5.4.1 Coherent Waveburst algorithm............................................................................................................ 66
5.4.2 Dataset...................................................................................................................................................... 66
5.4.3 Attribute choice ...................................................................................................................................... 68
5.4.4 Training models ...................................................................................................................................... 68
5.4.5 Search sensitivity improvement............................................................................................................ 69
5.4.6 Application of cWB plus GMM to the 01 data................................................................................ 70
5.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................ 72
5.6 Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................................... 73
6 Modified machine learning technique for all-sky short transient gravitational-wave searches 75
6.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 76
6.2 Methodology......................................................................................................................................................... 76
6.2.1 Coherent WaveBurst algorithm............................................................................................................. 76
6.2.2 Gaussian mixture modeling in postproduction ................................................................................ 77
6.3 03a analysis with GMM...................................................................................................................................... 78
6.3.1 The standard 03a cWB all-sky analysis............................................................................................. 78
6.3.2 GMM model generation.......................................................................................................................... 78
6.3.3 Data simulation ...................................................................................................................................... 79
6.3.4 Sensitivity improvement for generic signal morphologies................................................................ 79
6.3.5 Robustness test to CCSN...................................................................................................................... 80
6.4 Search results......................................................................................................................................................... 83
6.5 Discussions............................................................................................................................................................ 83
6.6 Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................................ 84
7 Search for gravitational-wave bursts from glitching neutron stars 89
7.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................ 91
7.2 Signal Model......................................................................................................................................................... 91
7.3 Analysis Overview................................................................................................................................................ 94
7.3.1 Search method and data.......................................................................................................................... 94
7.3.2 Injection set................................................................................................................................................ 95
7.3.3 Sensitivity to GW signals during pulsar glitches................................................................................ 97
7.3.4 Reconstruction of signal’s frequency................................................................................................... 98
7.4 Prospects for localizing glitching NSfrom GW detection............................................................................... 98
7.5 Discussion.................................................................................................................................................................. 101
7.6 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................. 102
8 Gravitational-wave memory from binary neutron star mergers 106
8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................... 107
8.2 Non-linear memory waveform................................................................................................................................107
8.3 Impact of non-linear memory on thedistinguishabilityof matter effects ...................................................... Ill
8.4 Detection prospects of post-merger memory fromstacking multiple events..................................................114
8.5 Linear memory of ejecta from binary neutronstar andblack hole-neutron star systems............................. 115
8.6 Discussions...............................................................................................................................................................118
8.7 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................. 118
8.8 APPENDIX...............................................................................................................................................................119
A from CoRe database NR waveforms..........................................................................................119
B BNS-NSBH match....................................................................................................................................... 119
C Memory from binary black hole mergers................................................................................................. 119
9 Conclusions and Outlook 123
References 127

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Dissertation (monographical)
Referees:Jetzer Philippe, Mayer Lucio, Saha Prasenjit
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
UZH Dissertations
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:2023
Deposited On:19 Jan 2024 13:40
Last Modified:19 Jan 2024 13:40
Number of Pages:137
OA Status:Closed
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