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Development of Technique to Use Lattice Defects in CCDs to Search for Dark Matter


Lee, Steven Juhyung. Development of Technique to Use Lattice Defects in CCDs to Search for Dark Matter. 2023, University of Zurich, Faculty of Science.

Abstract

List of Figures viii
List of Tables xvi
List of Abbreviations xviii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Universe and Dark Matter.................................................................. 1
1.1.1 Evidence of dark matter........................................................................ 2
1.1.1.1 Not enough visible matter........................................................ 4
1.1.1.2 Gravitational lensing ............................................................... 5
1.2 Direct detection of DM................................................................................. 6
1.2.1 Direct detection signals........................................................................ 9
2 Solid state devices 11
2.1 Solid state physics........................................................................................... 11
2.1.1 Quantum potential well........................................................................ 13
2.1.2 Semiconductor........................................................................................ 16
2.1.3 The P-N junction ................................................................................. 17
2.1.4 Diodes....................................................................................................... 19
2.1.5 Transistor................................................................................................. 20
2.2 CCDs.................................................................................................................... 21
2.2.1 Capacitative-coupled section: Gates and pixel.................................... 22
2.2.2 Transporting channel ............................................................................ 25
2.2.3 Readout component............................................................................... 26
3 Radiation damage 29
3.1 Damage mechanism incrystals.................................................................... 30
3.1.1 After collision with an lattice atom...................................................... 32
3.1.2 Defect production.................................................................................. 34
3.2 Effects of damage........................................................................................... 36
3.3 Defect identification andmitigation............................................................ 38
3.3.1 Thermal Stimulation Current (TSC) Analysis................................... 38
3.3.2 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)...................................... 39
3.3.3 Defect recovery........................................................................................ 42
4 Dark Matter In CCDs 44
4.1 DAMIC CCDs................................................................................................. 46
4.2 DAMIC CCD Operations........................................................................... 50
4.2.1 Unbinned lxl images ........................................................................... 53
4.2.2 Binned 1x100 images............................................................................... 55
4.3 Image processing.............................................................................................. 57
4.3.1 Noise control and calibration............................................................... 57
4.3.2 Particle tracks separation and categorization ................................... 59
4.4 Dark Matter Searches usingionization.................................................... 63
4.4.1 DAMIC-SNOLAB, pre2019.................................................................... 63
4.4.2 DAMIC-M LBC..................................................................................... 65
4.4.3 DAMIC at SNOLAB, post 2021 ............................................................ 66
5 Device simulations 68
5.1 Device setup..................................................................................................... 68
5.1.1 Substructures of the DAMIC CCDs ................................................... 68
5.2 CCD operation simulation............................................................................ 74
5.3 Simulation support for CCDs..................................................................... 77
6 Radiation Damage in CCDs 84
6.1 Defects in DAMIC-S2019.......................................................................... 86
6.1.1 Development of edge finder algorithm ............................................... 86
6.1.2 Defect identification............................................................................... 89
6.1.3 Search for defect origin ........................................................................ 90
6.2 Daily modulation of defect production due to DM in Si................ 93
6.3 Defects in SENSEI CCDs........................................................................... 95
6.4 DAMIC Diodes and mini CCDs at CERN............................................ 97
7 Neutron irradiation campaign 105
7.1 Experimental setup....................................................................................... 106
7.1.1 General Procedure................................................................................. 109
7.1.2 Defect search.......................................................................................... 110
7.1.3 55Fe calibration....................................................................................... Ill
7.1.4 Proof of concept.................................................................................... Ill
7.1.5 AmBe irradiation 1.................................................................................. 112
7.1.6 AmBe irradiation 2.................................................................................. 112
7.2 Data analysis........................................................................................................114
7.2.1 Defect identification.............................................................................. 115
7.2.2 Background.............................................................................................. 115
7.2.3 Calibration.............................................................................................. 115
7.2.4 Defect analysis....................................................................................... 118
7.2.5 Neutrons and defects.............................................................................. 132
7.3 Further irradiation ............................................................................................135
8 Conclusions 136
Appendix A DAMIC diodes and packaging details 146
A.l Probing ................................................................................................................. 146
A.2 Dicing .....................................................................................................................146
A.3 Packaging.............................................................................................................. 148
Appendix B DAMIC-M calibration system 150
Appendix C DAMIC-M cold testing jig 151
C.l Target environment............................................................................................151
C. 2 Probing or bonding........................................................................................ 151
Appendix D Irradiation Campaign Parameters 154
D. l lxl readout used for both 10 and 1 minute exposures configuration file.............................................................................................................................. 154
D.2 Clear image configuration file...................................................................... 158
D.3 6k X 4, 1000 skip calibration image configuration file...................... 163
D.4 Fe-55 calibration table for UW6418......................................................... 167
Appendix E Defect efficiency of 100 keV neutrons 169

Abstract

List of Figures viii
List of Tables xvi
List of Abbreviations xviii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Universe and Dark Matter.................................................................. 1
1.1.1 Evidence of dark matter........................................................................ 2
1.1.1.1 Not enough visible matter........................................................ 4
1.1.1.2 Gravitational lensing ............................................................... 5
1.2 Direct detection of DM................................................................................. 6
1.2.1 Direct detection signals........................................................................ 9
2 Solid state devices 11
2.1 Solid state physics........................................................................................... 11
2.1.1 Quantum potential well........................................................................ 13
2.1.2 Semiconductor........................................................................................ 16
2.1.3 The P-N junction ................................................................................. 17
2.1.4 Diodes....................................................................................................... 19
2.1.5 Transistor................................................................................................. 20
2.2 CCDs.................................................................................................................... 21
2.2.1 Capacitative-coupled section: Gates and pixel.................................... 22
2.2.2 Transporting channel ............................................................................ 25
2.2.3 Readout component............................................................................... 26
3 Radiation damage 29
3.1 Damage mechanism incrystals.................................................................... 30
3.1.1 After collision with an lattice atom...................................................... 32
3.1.2 Defect production.................................................................................. 34
3.2 Effects of damage........................................................................................... 36
3.3 Defect identification andmitigation............................................................ 38
3.3.1 Thermal Stimulation Current (TSC) Analysis................................... 38
3.3.2 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)...................................... 39
3.3.3 Defect recovery........................................................................................ 42
4 Dark Matter In CCDs 44
4.1 DAMIC CCDs................................................................................................. 46
4.2 DAMIC CCD Operations........................................................................... 50
4.2.1 Unbinned lxl images ........................................................................... 53
4.2.2 Binned 1x100 images............................................................................... 55
4.3 Image processing.............................................................................................. 57
4.3.1 Noise control and calibration............................................................... 57
4.3.2 Particle tracks separation and categorization ................................... 59
4.4 Dark Matter Searches usingionization.................................................... 63
4.4.1 DAMIC-SNOLAB, pre2019.................................................................... 63
4.4.2 DAMIC-M LBC..................................................................................... 65
4.4.3 DAMIC at SNOLAB, post 2021 ............................................................ 66
5 Device simulations 68
5.1 Device setup..................................................................................................... 68
5.1.1 Substructures of the DAMIC CCDs ................................................... 68
5.2 CCD operation simulation............................................................................ 74
5.3 Simulation support for CCDs..................................................................... 77
6 Radiation Damage in CCDs 84
6.1 Defects in DAMIC-S2019.......................................................................... 86
6.1.1 Development of edge finder algorithm ............................................... 86
6.1.2 Defect identification............................................................................... 89
6.1.3 Search for defect origin ........................................................................ 90
6.2 Daily modulation of defect production due to DM in Si................ 93
6.3 Defects in SENSEI CCDs........................................................................... 95
6.4 DAMIC Diodes and mini CCDs at CERN............................................ 97
7 Neutron irradiation campaign 105
7.1 Experimental setup....................................................................................... 106
7.1.1 General Procedure................................................................................. 109
7.1.2 Defect search.......................................................................................... 110
7.1.3 55Fe calibration....................................................................................... Ill
7.1.4 Proof of concept.................................................................................... Ill
7.1.5 AmBe irradiation 1.................................................................................. 112
7.1.6 AmBe irradiation 2.................................................................................. 112
7.2 Data analysis........................................................................................................114
7.2.1 Defect identification.............................................................................. 115
7.2.2 Background.............................................................................................. 115
7.2.3 Calibration.............................................................................................. 115
7.2.4 Defect analysis....................................................................................... 118
7.2.5 Neutrons and defects.............................................................................. 132
7.3 Further irradiation ............................................................................................135
8 Conclusions 136
Appendix A DAMIC diodes and packaging details 146
A.l Probing ................................................................................................................. 146
A.2 Dicing .....................................................................................................................146
A.3 Packaging.............................................................................................................. 148
Appendix B DAMIC-M calibration system 150
Appendix C DAMIC-M cold testing jig 151
C.l Target environment............................................................................................151
C. 2 Probing or bonding........................................................................................ 151
Appendix D Irradiation Campaign Parameters 154
D. l lxl readout used for both 10 and 1 minute exposures configuration file.............................................................................................................................. 154
D.2 Clear image configuration file...................................................................... 158
D.3 6k X 4, 1000 skip calibration image configuration file...................... 163
D.4 Fe-55 calibration table for UW6418......................................................... 167
Appendix E Defect efficiency of 100 keV neutrons 169

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Dissertation (monographical)
Referees:Kilminster Ben, Baudis L, Macchiolo Anna, Moll Michael
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
UZH Dissertations
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:2023
Deposited On:19 Jan 2024 13:54
Last Modified:19 Jan 2024 13:54
Number of Pages:170
OA Status:Closed
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