The tropical rainforest of Borneo is heavily disturbed by logging, to date less than half of the original forest cover remains. To counteract such development logged forest is rehabilitated to regenerate its natural protective function. In this thesis we consider the carbon budget of logged forest and the ecology of the trees that are planted for rehabilitation. We show that the logged forest under study differs from unlogged forest due to the lack of the dominant trees and hence the organic carbon that is stored in their biomass. Besides this difference our results indicate that logged forest can maintain its protective function for carbon storage and is therefore worth preserving. The dominant trees, known as dipterocarps, belong to the Dipterocarpaceae family and are keystone species of the lowland forests of Borneo. On the basis of experimental work we study the carbon dynamics of selected dipterocarp species at the seedling stage. With plant physiological measurements of the carbohydrate stores we demonstrate how seedlings adapt to a changing light environment. Our results show that photosynthates are invested into growth or carbohydrate reserves, irrespective of the tree species under study. Further, experimental evidence suggests that the ectomycorrhizal association (plant-fungi-symbiosis) is crucial for the growth of seedlings and should therefore be considered for forest rehabilitation measures. In contrast we could not find evidence for a complex ectomycorrhiza-network between dipterocarp trees and seedlings in logged forest.