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γδ T cells respond directly and selectively to the skin commensal yeast Malassezia for IL-17-dependent fungal control


Ruchti, Fiorella; Tuor, Meret; Mathew, Liya; McCarthy, Neil E; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé (2024). γδ T cells respond directly and selectively to the skin commensal yeast Malassezia for IL-17-dependent fungal control. PLoS Pathogens, 20(1):e1011668.

Abstract

Stable microbial colonization of the skin depends on tight control by the host immune system. The lipid-dependent yeast Malassezia typically colonizes skin as a harmless commensal and is subject to host type 17 immunosurveillance, but this fungus has also been associated with diverse skin pathologies in both humans and animals. Using a murine model of Malassezia exposure, we show that Vγ4$^{+}$ dermal γδ T cells expand rapidly and are the major source of IL-17A mediating fungal control in colonized skin. A pool of memory-like Malassezia-responsive Vγ4$^{+}$ T cells persisted in the skin, were enriched in draining lymph nodes even after fungal clearance, and were protective upon fungal re-exposure up to several weeks later. Induction of γδT17 immunity depended on IL-23 and IL-1 family cytokine signalling, whereas Toll-like and C-type lectin receptors were dispensable. Furthermore, Vγ4$^{+}$ T cells from Malassezia-exposed hosts were able to respond directly and selectively to Malassezia-derived ligands, independently of antigen-presenting host cells. The fungal moieties detected were shared across diverse species of the Malassezia genus, but not conserved in other Basidiomycota or Ascomycota. These data provide novel mechanistic insight into the induction and maintenance of type 17 immunosurveillance of skin commensal colonization that has significant implications for cutaneous health.

Abstract

Stable microbial colonization of the skin depends on tight control by the host immune system. The lipid-dependent yeast Malassezia typically colonizes skin as a harmless commensal and is subject to host type 17 immunosurveillance, but this fungus has also been associated with diverse skin pathologies in both humans and animals. Using a murine model of Malassezia exposure, we show that Vγ4$^{+}$ dermal γδ T cells expand rapidly and are the major source of IL-17A mediating fungal control in colonized skin. A pool of memory-like Malassezia-responsive Vγ4$^{+}$ T cells persisted in the skin, were enriched in draining lymph nodes even after fungal clearance, and were protective upon fungal re-exposure up to several weeks later. Induction of γδT17 immunity depended on IL-23 and IL-1 family cytokine signalling, whereas Toll-like and C-type lectin receptors were dispensable. Furthermore, Vγ4$^{+}$ T cells from Malassezia-exposed hosts were able to respond directly and selectively to Malassezia-derived ligands, independently of antigen-presenting host cells. The fungal moieties detected were shared across diverse species of the Malassezia genus, but not conserved in other Basidiomycota or Ascomycota. These data provide novel mechanistic insight into the induction and maintenance of type 17 immunosurveillance of skin commensal colonization that has significant implications for cutaneous health.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Immunology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Parasitology
Life Sciences > Microbiology
Life Sciences > Immunology
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > Genetics
Life Sciences > Virology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Virology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Microbiology, Parasitology
Language:English
Date:12 January 2024
Deposited On:06 Feb 2024 17:41
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:38
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1553-7366
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1011668
PubMed ID:38215167
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)