Drug-drug interactions are frequently encountered in the therapy of HIV-infected patients, since the highly active antiretroviral therapy always contains several drugs. Drugs against opportunistic infections and concomitant diseases are added frequently. All protease inhibitors are inhibitors of CYP3A, which is important in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs, e.g. simvastatin, atorvastatin, sildenafil, and clarithromycin. Among the protease inhibitors, ritonavir is the strongest inhibitor of CYP3A activity. This inhibition is also used to enhance ("boost") the bioavailability of other protease inhibitors. The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) efavirenz and nevirapine lead to an increase in CYP3A activity during long-term treatment. To prevent interactions, doses of CYP3A substrates have to be adapted in the beginning and at the end of CYP3A activity-modifying treatments. Interactions can also be a result of modifications in the activities of glucuronosyltransferases and of transport proteins. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, which leads to increased expositions towards many antineoplastic drugs.